APA Style (7th Edition)

(This APA style guide last revised: 3/12/20)

On this APA style Guide, all referrals to the  Manual  is for the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition, © 2020.

The 7th edition APA style Manual was released Oct. 1, 2019, along with their new official APA style Blog.

Please see tabs indicating "7th ed." for Manual Introduction and Instructional Aids for transitioning to new style as reflected in the Manual.

Note that as of this initial style guide launch, neither APA nor NMU Lydia Olson Library plan to provide a table showing all of the differences between 6th ed. & 7th edition styles (there are too many). Instead, please consult the Manual.
 

Looking for the NMU Olson Library APA style 6th edition guide? Click here. It will be available until at least September 1, 2022


Note: Enforcement of APA style is up to course instructor or publication editor.
 

Notes on Spacing of reference entries: APA style 7th edition references remain as hanging indent & double-spaced entries (one blank line between lines of text). There is not an extra blank line between the line at the top entitled References and the first entry. Also, there is not an extra blank line between reference entries.

Note on space between sentences: Throughout entire paper/manuscript (not just references anymore), there is only one space between end of sentence punctuation and beginning of next sentence.

General notable changes in reference formats

1. Works with 1-20 authors: List all authors.

2. Works with 21 or more authors: List first 19, an ellipse, then the last author.

3. All titles of sources in references (except legal references) are italicized. This includes journal name, book title, webpage title, etc. Only for legal references are in-text citations italicized. 

4. Place of publication is no longer included in book & report references. However, publisher is still required. 

5. DOIs and URLs now appear as hyperlinks, beginning with either https:// or http://  and--depending on the word processor--may be underlined & in blue font. APA also allows these as plain black text not underlined.

As such, APA now accepts either of these as correct format (no need to change). See Manual, Section 9.35, pp. 299-300.

Examples on this guide now reflect what normally appears in word processing applications, namely blue font & underline.

6. Allow word processors to automatically split DOIs and URLs between lines, or place them on the next line leaving a partial line above.

7. APA 7th edition now allows for DOI or URL Shorteners (Section 9.36. p. 300). To create these, use the APA-recommended International DOI Foundation < http://shortdoi.org >, or the variety of URL shorteners available. 
However, examples on this guide will not employ shortened DOIs/URLs.

NOTES: 

Works with 1-20 authors: List all authors.

Works with 21 or more authors: List first 19, an ellipse, then the last author.

Provide issue numbers for all periodicals which use issue numbers (regardless whether continuously paginated or each issue begins with page 1).

NOTES:

Please verify DOI format with journal author guidelines before submission.

APA 7th ed. Rule 9.25: Include the issue number for all periodicals which have issue numbers

Some online-only journals use publication year as volume number. For those references, provide year in both publication date, and volume number positions.

When a DOI is assigned, it does not matter whether article was retrieved online or print version.
 

Journal Article

  • Wilens, T. E., & Biederman, J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(4), 580-588. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Wilens & Biederman, 2006)
    Narrative: Wilens and Biederman (2006)
    Direct quote: (Wilens & Biederman, 2006, p. 581)

Journal Article with 3 through 20 authors. List all authors (note 7th ed. change for in-text citations)

  • Weich, C., Jensen, R. L., & Vieten, M. (2019). Triathlon transition study: Quantifying differences in running movement pattern and precision after bike-run transition. Sports Biomechanics, 18(2), 215–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2017.1391324

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Weich et al., 2019)
    Narrative: Weich et al. (2019)
    Direct quote: (Weich et al., 2019, p. 216)

Journal Article, 21 or more authors (list first 19, ellipse, last author)

  • Janda, M., Gebski, V., Davies, L. C., Forder, P., Brand, A., Hogg, R., Jobling, T., Land, R., Manolitsas, T., Nascimento, M., Neesham, D., Nicklin, J. L., Oehler, M. K., Otton, G., Perrin, L., Salfinger, S., Hammond, I., Leung, Y., Sykes, P., ... Obermair, A. (2017). Effect of total laparoscopic hysterectomy vs total abdominal hysterectomy on disease-free survival among women with stage I endometrial cancer: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 317(12), 1224–1233. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.2068

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Janda et al., 2017)
    Narrative: Janda et al. (2017)
    Direct quote: (Janda et al., 2017, p. 1224) 

Journal Article which provides an article number or eLocator in place of page numbers. Note: For these types of articles, 7th ed. no longer provides page numbers from PDF in reference. 
Instead, APA prefaces the "page number" section with (capitalized): Article
followed by the number.

Some (but not all) publishers prefix the article number/eLocator with a lower-case letter "e". 
The issue number was provided.

  • Monroy, C., Shafto, C., Castellanos, I., Bergeson, T., & Houston, D. (2019). Visual habituation in deaf and hearing infants. PLoS One, 14(2), Article e0209265. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209265

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Monroy et al., 2019)
    Narrative: Monroy et al. (2019)
    Direct quote:  (Monroy et al., 2019, p. 4)

Journal Article which provides an article number or eLocator in place of page numbers. Note: For these types of articles, 7th ed. no longer provides page numbers from PDF in reference. 
Instead, APA prefaces the "page number" section with (capitalized): Article
followed by the number.

No issue number was provided. 

  • Norris, E., Shelton, N., Dunsmuir, S., Duke-Williams, O., & Stamatakis, E. (2015). Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: A pilot study. BMC Public Health, 15, Article 366. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1706-5

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Norris et al., 2015)
    Narrative: Norris et al. (2015)
    Direct quote: (Norris et al., 2015, p. 6)

Journal Article which provides an article number or eLocator in place of page numbers. Note: For these types of articles, 7th ed. no longer provides page numbers from PDF in reference. 
Instead, APA prefaces the "page number" section with (capitalized): Article
followed by the number.

Journal uses publication year for volume number.
No issue number was provided.  

  • Lawrence, J. E., Patel, A. S., Rovin, R. A., Belton, R. J., Bammert, C. E., Steele, C. J., & Winn, R. J. (2014). Quantification of protoporphyrin IX accumulation in glioblastoma cells: A new technique. ISRN Surgery, 2014, Article 405360. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/405360

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Lawrence et al., 2014)
    Narrative: Lawrence et al. (2014)
    Direct quote: (Lawrence et al., 2014, p. 3)

Journal Article, combination of individual and group authors

  • Toland, A. E., Brody, L. C., & BIC Steering Committee. (2019). Lessons learned from two decades of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing: The evolution of data sharing and variant classification. Genetics in Medicine, 21(7), 1476–1480. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0370-4

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Toland, 2019)
    Narrative: Toland (2019)
    Direct quote: (Toland, 2019, p. 1476)

Cochrane Database Report retrieved from Cochrane Library (has own format because reviews are only available in this database. Further explanation in Manual p. 297 and p. 319 ).

  • Garcia‐Casal, M. N., Peña‐Rosas, J. P., De‐Regil, L. M., Gwirtz, J. A., & Pasricha, S.-R. (2018). Fortification of maize flour with iron for controlling anaemia and iron deficiency in populations. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010187.pub2

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Garcia-Casal, 2018)
    Narrative: Garcia-Casal (2018)
    Direct quote: (Garcia-Casal, 2018, p. 3)

Advance online article (published online before print).

  • Kishore, T. A., Kuriakose, M. J., Pathrose, G., Raveendran, V., Kumar, K. V., & Unni, V. N. (2019). Robotic assisted kidney transplantation in grafts with multiple vessels: Single center experience. International Urology and Nephrology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-019-02305-z

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Kishore, 2019)
    Narrative: Kishore (2019)
    Direct quote: (Kishore, 2019, Discussion section, para. 4)

For one article:

  1. Check the first page of article (usually in smaller print near journal logo, copyright, or near author email address).
  2. If not on article, check database record/abstract (sometimes labeled as DOI). CINAHL began adding DOIs in 2009.
  3. If DOI does not appear on either article or in database, search the Cross/Ref DOI Lookup using article author/title


For list of references:

       Go to Simple Text Query Form and copy & paste entire reference list into box. Click submit.


An individual DOI may be verified/searched:
Resolve a DOI name

Journal Article without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version

  • Williams, J. (2008). The victims of crime. Sociology Review, 17(4), 30-32.

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Williams, 2008)
    Narrative: Williams (2008)
    Direct quote: (Williams, 2008, p. 30) 

Journal Article without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL (provide full URL)

  • Arakji, R. Y., & Lang, K. R. (2008). Avatar business value analysis: A method for the evaluation of business value creation in virtual commerce. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 9(3), 207-218. http://www.jecr.org/node/132

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Arakji & Lang, 2008)
    Narrative: Arakji and Lang (2008)
    Direct quote: (Arakji & Lang, 2008, p. 208) 

Magazine Article, from most academic research databases or print version. Note to provide full date of publication.

  • Velchansky, G. (2018, July/August). Growing our advocacy potential: How the Michigan Reading Association gets its members involved and expands its literacy presence. Literacy Today, 36(1), 40–41.

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Velchansky, 2018)
    Narrative: Velchansky (2018)
    Direct quote: (Velchansky, 2018, p. 41) 

Magazine Article, with a nondatabase URL (provide full URL). 
Note to provide full date of publication.

Webpage on a news website. Note to include full publication date. 

Newspaper Article, from online newspaper site. Note to include full publication date.

Newspaper Article, from most academic research databases or print version. Note to include full publication date. 

  • Von Drehle, D. (2000, January 15). Russians unveil new security plan. The Washington Post, A1, A21.

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Von Drehle, 2000)
    Narrative: Von Drehle (2000)
    Direct quote: (Von Drehle, 2000, p. A1) 

For additional examples, please see Manual, pp. 330-331.

Nursing Code of Ethics. When author and publisher are the same, omit publisher name

  • American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (American Nurses Association, 2015)
    Parenthetical, plan to cite multiple times: (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2015)
    Parenthetical subsequent citation: (ANA, 2015)

    Narrative: American Nurses Association (2015)
    Narrative, plan to cite multiple times: American Nurses Association (ANA, 2015)
    Narrative subsequent citation: ANA (2015)

    Direct quote: (American Nurses Association, 2015, p. 5)
    Direct quote subsequent citation: (ANA, 2015, p. 8)

Notes on Books references: New for 7th edition

All books (even those retrieved online) must include publisher.
However, place of publication is no longer included in references.

When electronic book is retrieved from academic research database and was not assigned a DOI, you no longer include name of database. 
However, if that ebook is ONLY available from that database, then such additional information is provided in the reference.

 

Book without an author or editor, no DOI assigned, subsequent edition. Note to place title in the author position & alphabetize on references list using the first significant word in the title.

  • Nursing 2020 drug handbook (40th ed.). (2020). Wolters Kluwer.

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Nursing 2020 Drug Handbook, 2020)
    Narrative: Nursing 2020 Drug Handbook (2020)
    Direct quote: (Nursing 2020 Drug Handbook, 2020, p. 288)  

Authored book without a DOI, from academic research database or print version

  • Vogel, C. G. (1999). Legends of landforms: Native American lore and the geology of the land. Millbook Press. 

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Vogel, 1999)
    Narrative: Vogel (1999)
    Direct quote: (Vogel, 1999, p. 100)

Illustrated children's book without a DOI, including author & illustrator, from academic research database or print version. Note that many of these books do not have page numbers, so cite direct quote using section (if provided) and paragraph number. Recommendation: if no section names, count paragraphs from beginning of book.

  • Brown, M. W., & Hurd, C. (Illus.). (1947). Goodnight moon. Harper. 

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Brown & Hurd, 1947)
    Narrative: Brown and Hurd (1947)
    Direct quote: There are many things in the room, including "a telephone and a red balloon" (Brown & Hurd, 1947, para. 1)

Authored book without a DOI, from academic research database or print version, multiple authors

  • Larson, G. W., Ellis, D. C., & Rivers, P. C. (1984). Essentials of chemical dependency counseling. Columbia University Press.

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Larson et al., 1984)
    Narrative: Larson et al. (1984)
    Direct quote: (Larson et al., 1984, p. 98) 

    Authored book without a DOI, subsequent edition, with a nondatabase URL (example accessed directly from publisher)

    Authored book without a DOI, organization as author, with a nondatabase URL. When author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher.

    • [example forthcoming]

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:  

    Authored book assigned a DOI, multiple authors

    • Valencia, C. A., Pervaiz, M. A., Husami, A., Qian, Y., & Zhang, K. (2013). Next generation sequencing technologies in medical genetics. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9032-6

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Valencia et al., 2013)
      Narrative: Valencia et al. (2013)
      Direct quote: (Valencia et al., 2013, p. 26)  

    Edited book without a DOI, subsequent edition, from most academic research databases or print version

    • Schuiling, K. D., & Likis, F. E. (Eds.). (2022). Gynecologic healthcare: With an introduction to prenatal and postpartum care (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Schuiling & Likis, 2022)
      Narrative: Schuiling and Likis (2022)
      Direct quote: (Schuiling & Likis, 2022, p. xv) 

    One volume of a multivolume work with editors indicated but without a DOI, chapters not separately authored, subsequent edition, from academic research database or print version

    • Moore, M. S., & Levitan, L. (Eds.). (2016). For hearing people only: Answers to some of the most commonly asked questions about the Deaf community, its culture, and the "Deaf reality" (4th ed., Vol. 2). Deaf Life Press.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Moore & Levitan, 2016)
      Narrative: Moore and Levitan (2016)
      Direct quote: (Moore & Levitan, 2016, p. 65) 

    Article or chapter in an edited book (editors indicated, chapters separately authored) but without a DOI, from academic research database or print version 

    • Hartley, J. T., Harker, J. O., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). American Psychological Association.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Hartley et al., 1980)
      Narrative: Hartley et al. (1980)
      Direct quote: (Hartley et al., 1980, p. 241) 

    Article or chapter in a book where each chapter is written by a Contributor, and book has authors (not editors), subsequent edition

    • Polomano, R. C., & Fillman, M. (2017). Pain. In S. L. Lewis, L. Bucher, M. M. Heitkemper, L. Bucher, & M. Harding, Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (10th ed., pp. 102-128). Elsevier.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Polomano & Fillman, 2017)
      Narrative: Polomano and Fillman (2017)
      Direct quote: (Polomano & Fillman, 2017, p. 125)

    Article or chapter in a book where each chapter is written by author(s), publisher is book author (so omit publisher name), subsequent edition

    • Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The five practices of exemplary leadership. In Jossey-Bass, The Jossey-Bass reader on educational leadership (2nd ed., rev. ed., pp. 63-72).

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Kouzes & Posner, 2007)
      Narrative: Kouzes and Posner (2007)
      Direct quote: (Kouzes & Posner, 2007, p. 64) 

    Notes on Reports references: New for 7th edition

    All reports (even those retrieved online) must include publisher.
    However, place of publication is no longer included in references.

    When a report is retrieved from an academic research database and was not assigned a DOI, you no longer include name of database. 

    However, if that report is ONLY available from that database, then such additional information is provided in the reference. This is the case for reports/documents provided in the ERIC database. Please see separate section in this style guide for examples of how to format ERIC documents references.

     

    Code of Ethics. When author and publisher are the same, omit publisher name

    • American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (American Nurses Association, 2015)
      Parenthetical, plan to cite multiple times: (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2015)
      Parenthetical subsequent citation: (ANA, 2015)

      Narrative: American Nurses Association (2015)
      Narrative, plan to cite multiple times: American Nurses Association (ANA, 2015)
      Narrative subsequent citation: ANA (2015)

      Direct quote: (American Nurses Association, 2015, p. 5)
      Direct quote, plan to cite multiple times: (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2015, p. 5)
      Direct quote subsequent citation: (ANA, 2015, p. 8)

    Organization-Authored report assigned a DOI, no report number

    • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2013). Human genome editing: Science, ethics, and governance. The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24623

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2013)
      Narrative: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2013)
      Direct quote: (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2013, p. 29)

    Organization-Authored report without a DOI, from academic research database or print version. Has report number. When author and publisher are the same, omit publisher name

    • National League for Nursing. (1990). Self-study report for community health organizations (NLN Publication No. 21-2329).

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (National League for Nursing, 1990)
      Narrative: National League for Nursing (1990)
      Direct quote: (National League for Nursing, 1990, p. 17)

    Organization-Authored report without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL. 

    Individual-authored report, with publication date & report number, and with a nondatabase URL. Agency name is placed in publisher position.

    • Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb17.jsp

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Russo & Jiang, 2006)
      Narrative: Russo and Jiang (2006)
      Direct quote: (Russo & Jiang, 2006, Findings section, para. 1)

    Report/Document and no author identified. When no publication date indicated, provide title first

    • [example forthcoming] 

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    Individual webpage which appears on a website

    Since webpages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, publisher, etc.

    Note that proper names, acronyms, and abbreviations are always capitalized.

    New for 7th ed.

    1. For date of publication, only provide full date if it appears within and pertains to the content. 
    Use "last updated" or "revised" date if it applies to content, and is not part of website footer (APA Manual, Section 9.13).

    "Do not use a copyright date from a webpage or website footer" (APA Manual, Section 9.13). 

    Also, do not use "Page last reviewed" or date of last review, because content reviewed does not imply that the content was changed (APA Manual, Section 9.15).

    As a result, some webpages references will not have a date, so indicate (n.d.).

    2. Title of webpage is now italicized.

    3. The phrases "Retrieved from" or "Access from" or the word "website" are no longer included in references. Instead, provide only the URL. (APA Manual, Section 9.35)

    4. Date of retrieval is included ONLY when "citing an unarchived (i.e., not stable) work that is likely or meant to change" (APA Manual, Section 9.16).
    Examples of works which are "inherently designed to change" include webpage versions of dictionaries/encyclopedias, Twitter, and Facebook. See examples in further sections of this Guide.

    5. For government webpages authored by an agency, place agency name in the author position, and if a parent agency also appears then place that name in the publisher/site position. However, if the parent agency does not appear on the page, do not include it in the reference--even if it is known.

    6. URLs are presented as hyperlinks beginning with either protocol of "http://" or "https://" (APA Manual, Section 9.35).
    It is highly recommended researchers copy & paste the URL exactly as it appears, including the protocol. For example, do not convert protocol http:// to https:// as the source may not be designed as a secure website.

    7. Utilize default display settings of word processing programs as either underlined in blue text, or plain text as the 6th ed. used. Also, links should be live if it is expected to be published or read online (APA Manual, Section 9.35). 
    Instructors often refer to this format as an "active link."

    8. Do not worry about forcing a split of URLs between lines. In the 7th edition, it is acceptable to allow word processing software to automatically split the URL between multiple lines, or move the URL to begin on the next line (APA Manual, Section 9.35).

    Recommendation: If the webpage is also available as an online document/report (for example in PDF), please download that report and provide that URL. Use the online report format examples on this Guide listed under the Reports sections, and cite in-text appropriately.

    9. For direct quotation from a webpage, because source does not contain page numbers, there are multiple options for verbiage at the end of in-text citation:
    section name followed by the word section
    abbreviated section name within quotation marks with word section
    para. followed by the paragraph number
    section name followed by the word section, followed by para. and paragraph number

    APA states to "use the approach that will best help readers find the quotation" [Manual, p. 273]. 

    Individual person(s) as author(s), content does not show publication date, unarchived work that is likely or meant to change (note capitalization of proper names, & when persons are authors you must include name of website)

    • Gerber, J. (n.d.). Director's page. Oscar Grady Public Library. Retrieved January 10, 2020, from http://www.oscargradylibrary.org/?page_id=6884

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Gerber, n.d.)
      Narrative: Gerber (n.d.)
      Direct quote: (Gerber, n.d., para. 2)

    Group of people as authors, & shows content date. "by Mayo Clinic Staff " appears on the webpage

    Government Agency as author, parent agency appears on page, shows "Page last reviewed" date (therefore, indicate publication date of n.d.)

    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Healthier holidays in 1 – 2 – 3! U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/features/stay-active/index.html

      How to cite this work in-text, assume citing work more than once, so include acronym for subsequent cite:
      Parenthetical: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], n.d.)
      Narrative: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, n.d.)
      Direct quote with only abbreviated name of section:
           (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], n.d., "Plan Activities" section)
      Direct quote including abbreviated section and paragraph number:
           (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], n.d., "Plan Activities" section, para. 3)

    Organization as author, no update year

    Note regarding citing an entire website source

    When discussing an entire website (as opposed to a specific page on the website), an entry does not appear in the reference list, but is cited within text as shown in the following sample sentence:
    The International Council of Museums web site provides many links to museums, codes of ethics, and the museum profession (https://icom.museum/en/).

    New for APA 7th ed. - Course content is now a reference, not personal communication (6th ed.)

    When course materials such as a syllabus, lecture notes, or presentation slides (e.g., PowerPoint) are available only from through a course website or course management systems (e.g., NMU EduCat, Moodle, or Blackboard), create reference entry using the following examples (Manual, p. 347, example # 102).

    Reference entry includes: author, year, title with format type in square brackets, name of course management system (if applicable), and URL.
    If retrieved from course management system, provide login URL, not the exact URL of the content.

    Slides from within a course management system

    • Imdieke, S. (2019). Organizing for effective reading instruction [PowerPoint slides]. NMU EduCat. https://educat.nmu.edu/ 

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Imdieke, 2019)
      Narrative: Imdieke (2019)
      Direct quote: (Imdieke, 2019, Slide 3)

    YouTube Video (provide name of person/group who uploaded the video, regardless of role)
    Note: When citing direct quote from audiovisual works, include time stamp of when quoted segment begins.

    • UP Above Productions. (2018, April 8). U.P. 200 sled dog race - Marquette [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7lI9QzkCzU0

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (U.P. Above Productions, 2018)
      Narrative: U.P. Above Productions (2018)
      Direct quote: (U.P. Above Productions, 2018, 1:10)


    Video Webcast from Television Series Single Episode


    Film / Movie / Motion Picture / Video on DVD
    Notes: Provide url of official source where one can acquire the DVD (usually publisher's page).
    When citing direct quote from audiovisual works, include time stamp of where segment begins.

    • Chrisman, S. (Producer & Director). (2003). Lumberjack life: U.P. days of yore [Film; educational DVD]. WNMU-TV. https://wnmutv.nmu.edu/programs/purchase-dvd/

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Chrisman, 2003)
      Narrative: Chrisman (2003)
      Direct quote: (Chrisman, 2003, 15:02)


    Audio Podcast

    • Shockley, C. (Host), & Charney, T. (Producer). (2007, August 19). Ashes to hope: Overcoming the Detroit riots [Audio podcast]. Michigan Radio NPR. https://www.michiganradio.org/post/ashes-hope-overcoming-detroit-riots

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Shockley & Charney, 2007)
      Narrative: Shockley and Charney (2007)
      Direct quote: (Shockley & Charney, 2007, 7:41)

    When citing a work accessed online, please remember to apply APA 7th ed. rule regarding date of publication: it must be for the content. That is, do not use footer template year.

    Reference components include: author of visual work itself, year of source, title followed in square brackets by type of medium, site name, and URL (if retrieved online).

    All of the examples below include the url to the visual work itself, not to the webpage which has the image of the visual work.

    If you plan on directly quoting content from the webpage where the visual work appears, then look at & use the webpage examples on this guide, not the examples below.

    If it will make it easier to find the visual work, you may provide the url of the work itself (jpg, etc.) instead of the webpage url. This is especially helpful if there are many visual items which appear on a webpage.

    If the visual work does not have a title, provide description including type of medium (see example below).

    Provide: artist as author, year(s) of creation (as attributed by the museum/gallery), title in italics followed by type of medium in square brackets, name of museum/gallery, city, state / province (if applicable), and country. If image of visual work is available online, then include URL to that image.

    Additional examples are in the Manual, pp. 346-347.


    Diagram

    • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2013, July 2). intercellular lipid pathway [Diagram].Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/skin/images/skin6.jpg

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2013)
      Narrative: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2013)
       

    Photograph. Work does not have a name/title. This example has publication date.


    Artwork in a museum or on a museum website.

    Blog post

    • Pottorff, A. (2019, July 11). Rural energy dialogues: Rural America’s role in the energy revolution. Jefferson Center. https://jefferson-center.org/rural-americas-role-in-the-energy-revolution/

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Pottorff, 2019)
      Narrative: Pottorff (2019)
      Direct quote: (Pottorff, 2019, Build Clarity and Understanding section, para. 3)
      Direct quote, abbreviated heading/section name (include within quotation marks): (Pottorff, 2019, "Support an Energy System" section, para. 1)


    Online forum post

    • Jameson, J. (2018, May 31). Teaching critical appraisal [Online forum post]. Caucus - Nursing and Allied Health Resources Discussions. https://www.mlanet.org/p/fo/st/topic=56&post=26770

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Jameson, 2018)
      Narrative: Jameson (2018)
      Direct quote: (Jameson, 2018, para. 1)

    Government webpages

    Since webpages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, publisher, etc.

    Note that proper names, acronyms, and abbreviations are always capitalized.

    New for 7th ed.

    1. For date of publication, only provide full date if it appears within and pertains to the content. 

    Use "last updated" or "revised" date if it applies to content, and is not part of website footer (APA Manual, Section 9.13).

    "Do not use a copyright date from a webpage or website footer" (APA Manual, Section 9.13). 

    Also, do not use "Page last reviewed" or date of last review, because content reviewed does not imply that the content was changed (APA Manual, Section 9.15).

    As a result, some webpages references will not have a date, so indicate (n.d.).

    2. Title of webpage is now italicized.

    3. The phrases "Retrieved from" or "Access from" or the word "website" are no longer included in references. Instead, provide only the URL. (APA Manual, Section 9.35)

    4. Date of retrieval is included ONLY when "citing an unarchived (i.e., not stable) work that is likely or meant to change" (APA Manual, Section 9.16).
    Examples of works which are "inherently designed to change" include webpage versions of dictionaries/encyclopedias, Twitter, and Facebook. See examples in further sections of this Guide.

    5. For government webpages authored by an agency, place agency name in the author position, and if a parent agency also appears then place that name in the publisher/site position. However, if the parent agency does not appear on the page, do not include it in the reference--even if it is known.

    6. URLs are presented as hyperlinks beginning with either protocol of "http://" or "https://" (APA Manual, Section 9.35).
    It is highly recommended researchers copy & paste the URL exactly as it appears, including the protocol. For example, do not convert protocol http:// to https:// as the source may not be designed as a secure website.

    7. Utilize default display settings of word processing programs as either underlined in blue text, or plain text as the 6th ed. used. Also, links should be live if it is expected to be published or read online (APA Manual, Section 9.35). 
    Instructors often refer to this format as an "active link."

    8. Do not worry about forcing a split of URLs between lines. In the 7th edition, it is acceptable to allow word processing software to automatically split the URL between multiple lines, or move the URL to begin on the next line (APA Manual, Section 9.35).

    Recommendation: If the webpage is also available as an online document/report (for example in PDF), please download that report and provide that URL. Use the online report format examples on this Guide listed under the Books & Reports section, and cite in-text appropriately.

    9. For direct quotation from a webpage, because source does not contain page numbers, there are multiple options for verbiage at the end of in-text citation:
    section name followed by the word section
    abbreviated section name within quotation marks with word section
    para. followed by the paragraph number
    section name followed by the word section, followed by para. and paragraph number

    APA states to "use the approach that will best help readers find the quotation" [Manual, p. 273]. 

    U.S. Government webpage. Author is parent agency. Archived date listed as "Last updated". Provide full date, not just year of publication. Also do not forget to italicize title.

    • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2019, July 30). Health effects of ozone pollution. https://www.epa.gov/ground-level-ozone-pollution/health-effects-ozone-pollution

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2019)
      Narrative: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2019)
      Direct quote: (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2019, Who is at Risk? section, para. 2)

    U.S. Government webpage. When author (agency) & parent agency are different and appear on page. In this example, entire title is name of a place (proper noun). 7th ed. rule is to provide parent agency & subagency in site name position. Archived date listed as "Last updated". Provide full date, not just year of publication. Also do not forget to italicize title.

    • National Park Service. (2019, November 19). Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. U.S. Department of the Interior. https://www.nps.gov/piro/index.htm

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (National Park Service, 2019)
      Narrative: National Park Service (2019)
      Direct quote: (National Park Service, 2019, para. 1)

    U.S. Government webpage with Government Agency as author, parent agency appears on page, shows "Page last reviewed" date (therefore, indicate publication date of n.d.). Include parent agency in site name position. Also do not forget to italicize title.
    In-text citation examples for this entry are for one-time only, not subsequent (see webpages examples above for initial with agency acronym & subsequent entries).

    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Healthier holidays in 1 – 2 – 3! U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/features/stay-active/index.html

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.)
      Narrative: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.)
      Direct quote with only abbreviated name of section:
           (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d., "Plan Activities" section)
      Direct quote including abbreviated section and paragraph number:
           (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d., "Plan Activities" section, para. 3)

    State of Michigan government webpage, agency author, parent agency does not appear on webpage. This example is of an online form, no date provided for content (just in webpage footer), has site name. Do not forget to italicize title. In-text cite of quotation section heading shortened, so use quotation marks.

    • Michigan Department of Attorney General. (n.d.). Consumer complaint/inquiry form.https://secure.ag.state.mi.us/complaints/consumer.aspx

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Michigan Department of Attorney General, n.d.)
      Narrative: Michigan Department of Attorney General (n.d.)
      Direct quote: (Michigan Department of Attorney General, n.d., "Please Be Aware" section, para. 1)

    Notes: Not all U.S. government reports & documents are published by GPO.
    When the author and publisher are the same, omit publisher from source element.

     

    U.S. Government Report, no report number indicated.
    7th ed. lists parent agency & subagency in publisher position. 


    U.S. Government Report, authored by agency, report number indicated. APA 7th ed. places parent agency & subagency in publisher position. 
    Note that the agency publication number may appear on the web document or in the library catalog.


    Statistical Brief authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number.

    • Weiss, A. J., McDermott, K. W., & Heslin, K. C. (2019). Opioid-Related hospital stays among women, 2016 (HCUP Statistical Brief No. 247). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb247-Opioid-Hospital-Stays-Women.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Weiss et al., 2019)
      Narrative: Weiss et al. (2019)
      Direct quote: (Weiss et al., 2019, p. 6)


    U.S. Government document, no publication number, retrieved print format

    • Baker, R. A. (2006). 200 notable days: Senate stories, 1787 to 2002. U.S. Government Printing Office.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Baker, 2006)
      Narrative: Baker (2006)
      Direct quote: In November 1922, Rebecca Felton was appointed the "first woman to a Senate vacancy" (Baker, 2006, p. 128).


    U.S. Government document with publication number, retrieved print format
    Note that the agency publication number may appear on the document or in the online catalog.

    • Olson, T. A., & Odlaug, T. O. (1972). Lake Superior periphyton in relation to water quality (EPA Publication No. 18050-DBM-02-72). U.S. Government Printing Office.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Olson & Odlaug, 1972)
      Narrative: Olson and Odlaug (1972)
      Direct quote: (Olson & Odlaug, 1972, p. 8)


    State of Michigan Government document without publication number. APA 7th ed. places parent agency in publisher position. 

    • Michigan Civil Rights Commission. (2017). The Flint water crisis: Systemic racism through the lens of Flint: Report of the Michigan Civil Rights Commission, February 17, 2017. Michigan Department of Civil Rights. https://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdcr/VFlintCrisisRep-F-Edited3-13-17_554317_7.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Michigan Civil Rights Commission, 2017)
      Narrative: Michigan Civil Rights Commission (2017)
      Direct quote: (Michigan Civil Rights Commission, 2017, p. 33)


    State of Michigan Government document without publication number. Retrieved print format. When author and publisher are same, omit publisher name.

    • Michigan Department of Community Health, & Michigan Dementia Coalition. (2003). Michigan dementia plan summary: Reducing the burden of dementia in Michigan

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Michigan Department of Community Health, & Michigan Dementia Coalition, 2003)
      Narrative: Michigan Department of Community Health, & Michigan Dementia Coalition (2003)
      Direct quote: (Michigan Department of Community Health, & Michigan Dementia Coalition, 2003, p. 9)

    Notes regarding Dictionaries:

    Definition Entry in a general Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no date, no editor. Note: When no entry author is provided, move name of word into author position. For direct quote, recommend providing more-specific information.

    • Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Love. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/love

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)
      Narrative: Merriam-Webster (n.d.)
      Direct quote: (Merriam-Webster, n.d., Entry 1 of 2, Definition 3b)


    Entry in a specialized/subject Dictionary without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version. 
    Note that even though this is an ebook, the entries are not viewable in PDF.

    • Harris, J., & White, V. (Eds.). (2018). Feminist social work. In A dictionary of social work and social care (2nd ed.). F. A. Davis.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Harris & White, 2018)
      Narrative: Harris and White (2018)
      Direct quote: (Harris & White, 2018, para. 2)

    Notes regarding Encyclopedias:

    When website form of online reference work content indicates last updated, include that as its publication year. However, do not include a reviewed date. 

    Online webpage/website encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc. are "inherently designed to change," and as such, references must include a date of retrieval unless a specific edition is indicated (Manual, Sects. 9.16 & 10.3).

    However, treat online form of printed encyclopedias similar to chapter in edited book, and use published year.

    Entry in an online Encyclopedia with entry author name, without a DOI. Include date of retrieval.


    Entry in an online Encyclopedia with author name and publisher, without a DOI. Since version of entry is archived, no date of retrieval is necessary.

    • LoCicero, R. (2019). Hemophilia B. In A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia. National Library of Medicine. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000539.htm

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (LoCicero, 2019)
      Narrative: LoCicero (2019)
      Direct quote: (LoCicero, 2019, Causes section, para. 1)


    Entry in an Encyclopedia without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version, with entry author, multiple volume set. Include full pagination of entry, not just cited content.

    • Hanegraaff, W. (2005). New Age movement. In L. Jones (Ed.), Encyclopedia of religion (2nd ed., Vol. 10, pp. 6495-6500). Macmillan Reference USA.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Hanegraaff, 2005)
      Narrative: Hanegraaff (2005)
      Direct quote: (Hanegraaff, 2005, p. 6495)


    Entry in an Encyclopedia assigned a DOI (online or print), with entry author, and is a single volume

    • Mori, S. (2016). Japan: Deaf community. In G. Gertz & P. Boudreault (Eds.), The SAGE Deaf Studies encyclopedia (pp. 528-532). SAGE. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483346489

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Mori, 2016)
      Narrative: Mori (2016)
      Direct quote: (Mori, 2016, p. 529)


    Entry in Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) - without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version, with entry author

    Title of the review and authorship appears in italics at the beginning of the review narrative (example provided below). Also, note that many entries published in MMY contain more than one review. Title of the test is capitalized.

    Entry information:

    Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments by NANCY L. ALLEN, Research Scientist, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    Reference entry:

    • Allen, N. L. (1992). Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments. In J. J. Kramer & J. C. Conoley (Eds.), The eleventh mental measurements yearbook. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska Press.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Allen, 1992)
      Narrative: Allen (1992)
      Direct quote: (Allen, 1992, p. 211)

    Citing specific chapter in DSM-5 (each assigned individual DOI) 

     

     

    DSM-5 with a DOI, organization as both author & publisher

     

     

    ICD-11 without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL, organization as both author & publisher

    • World Health Organization. (2019). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (11th ed.). https://icd.who.int/


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    For legislative and legal materials, APA uses the conventional legal citation format found in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (latest edition). Guidelines and additional examples appear in the Manual Chapter 11 (355-368).

    U.S. Congressional document
    For legislative materials such as hearings, provide: title, session of Congress, and year held. URL (optional) 

    Note that title of hearing is italicized.

     

    U.S. Unenacted federal bill - retrieved through Congress.gov
    For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, H.R. or S. number, session of Congress, and year introduced. URL (optional)

    Note that no part of reference entry is italicized.

     

    U.S. Enacted federal law 

      [example forthcoming]


       



      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

    Federal Court Decision. Note that no part of reference entry is italicized.

     

    • Hornback v. U.S., 601 F.3d 1382 (Fed. Cir. 2010).

       


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:
    • United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974).


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

    Michigan legislative document
    For legislative materials such as hearings, provide title, Congress, session, and year.

    Note that title of hearing is italicized.

    • [forthcoming]


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    Unenacted State of Michigan bill - retrieved through http://www.legislature.mi.gov
    (other states are similar--see Bluebook for format). Note that no part of reference entry is italicized.

    For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, H.R. or S. number, session of Congress, and year introduced. URL (optional)

    Note that no part of reference entry is italicized.

    • A bill to provide for the official time followed in this state; and to provide for the elimination of daylight savings time in this state. H.B. 4303, 100th Leg., Reg. Sess. (Mich. 2019). http://legislature.mi.gov/doc.aspx?2019-HB-4303


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    Michigan Code, specifically Revised School Code (1976)

     

    Adapting the example which appears in the APA Manual, 7th ed. p. 363 and The Bluebook.

    Information as it appears online from the State of Michigan Legislative Council:

    380.1280a Specialized or alternative school or program.

    Sec. 1280a.

       The board of a school district or intermediate school district that operates or participates in a consortium that operates an alternative educational program pursuant to section 1301, a vocational-technical skills center or other separate vocational education program, or any other type of specialized or alternative school or program shall ensure that the requirements of sections 1204a, 1277a, 1278, and 1280 are met for each of those schools or programs.

    History: Add. 1993, Act 335, Imd. Eff. Dec. 31, 1993
    Popular Name: Act 451


    APA Reference example:

    Michigan Revised School Code Act, 451 M.C.L. §380.1280a (1976 & 1993). http://legislature.mi.gov/doc.aspx?mcl-380-1280a

    APA In-text citation examples:

    (Michigan Revised School Code Act, 1976 & 1993)

    Michigan Revised School Code Act of 1976 and 1993

    Michigan Revised School Code Act (1976 & 1993)


    Notes:

    1. All of your references from the Revised School Code will begin with:

      Michigan Revised School Code Act, 451 M.C.L. §380.
       
    2. Rest of reference is the specific section or section range,
      followed by (1976 &
      and latest year indicated from the source History line.
       
    3. When referencing/citing laws/statutes/codes, nothing is italicized in either the reference or in-text citation. However, APA rules are different when citing court cases.

     

    Paper in proceedings published regularly (format similar to journal article)

    • Tavits, M., & Pérez, E. O. (2019). Language influences mass opinion toward gender and LGBT equality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(34), 16781–16786. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1908156116

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Tavits & Pérez, 2019)
      Narrative: Tavits and Pérez (2019)
      Direct quote: (Tavits & Pérez, 2019, p. 16782)

    Paper published in book form of Proceedings, 3 authors (format similar to a chapter in an edited book). Capitalize the name of the symposium/conference.

    • Barlow, D. H., Chorpita, B. F., & Turovsky, J. (1996). Fear, panic, anxiety, and disorders of emotion. In D. A. Hope (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 43. Perspectives on anxiety, panic, and fear (pp. 251-328). University of Nebraska Press.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Barlow et al., 1996)
      Narrative: Barlow et al. (1996)
      Direct quote: (Barlow et al., 1996, p. 251)

    Paper in proceedings published regularly, 21 or more authors (format similar to journal article) (example had 99 authors)

    • Frantz, L. A. F., Haile, J., Lin, A. T., Scheu, A., Geörg, C., Benecke, N., Alexander, M., Linderholm, A., Mullin, V. E., Daly, K. G., Battista, V. M., Price, M., Gron, K. J., Alexandri, P., Arbogast, R.-M., Arbuckle, B., Bӑlӑşescu, A., Barnett, R., Bartosiewicz, L., … Larson, G. (2019). Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(35), 17231–17238. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1901169116

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Frantz et al., 2019)
      Narrative: Frantz et al. (2019)
      Direct quote: (Frantz et al., 2019, p. 17236)

    Paper presentation

    • Clumpner, K. E. (2007, April 18-20). NMUmaniTies: An interdisciplinary blog for liaisons [Paper presentation]. Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians Annual Meeting, Wisconsin Dells, WI, United States.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Clumpner, 2007)
      Narrative: Clumpner (2007)
      Direct quote: (Clumpner, 2007, Slide 3)

    Poster presentation

    • Raspe, P. D., & Lasker, G. W. (1991, April 2-6). Relationship among given names in the Scilly Isles [Poster presentation]. American Association of Physical Anthropologists Annual Meeting, Milwaukee, WI, United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330340505

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Raspe & Lasker, 1991)
      Narrative: Raspe and Lasker (1991)
      Direct quote: (Raspe & Lasker, 1991, p. 149)

    When content is only available (limited circulation) from an online source (such as monographs provided in ERIC), provide the name of the database in the reference (Sections 9.30, & 10.8 example # 74). Provide the full url of the PDF, not address of the entry in the ERIC database.

    Report

    • Brewster, C., & Railsback, J. (2002). Full-day kindergarten: Exploring an option for extended learning (ED472733). ERIC. https://files.eric.ed.gov./fulltext/ED472733.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Brewster & Railsback, 2002)
      Narrative: Brewster and Railsback (2002)
      Direct quote: (Brewster & Railsback, 2002, p. 7)


    ERIC Digest 

    • Schuetz, P. (2000). Successful collaborations between high schools and community colleges. ERIC Digest (ED451856). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED451856.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Schuetz, 2000)
      Narrative: Schuetz (2000)
      Direct quote: (Schuetz, 2000, p. 3)


    Speeches/Meeting Papers - Paper presentation

    • Shaw, C. L. M. (1997, November 19-23). Customer satisfaction: Communication training and the help-desk hot-line [Paper presentation] (ED416553). National Communication Association 83rd Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, United States. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED416553.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Shaw, 1997)
      Narrative: Shaw (1997)
      Direct quote: (Shaw, 1997, p. 5)


    Speeches/Meeting Papers - Published in proceedings

    • Lucas, L. A. (1998, June 11). Issues in the creation and coordination of an academic computing help desk (ED425722). In Proceedings of the ASCUE Summer Conference [Paper presentation] (pp. 87-92). Association of Small Computer Users in Education 31st Annual Conference, North Myrtle Beach, SC, United States. ERIC. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425722.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Lucas, 1998)
      Narrative: Lucas (1998)
      Direct quote: (Lucas, 1998, p. 89)

    Book

    • Barker, C. L., & Searchwell, C. J. (2000). Writing year-end teacher improvement plans--right now!! The principal's time-saving reference guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. (ED450448)


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

    Report - available from ERIC (microfiche-only, but without report number)

    • Morgan, D. R. (1982). Desegregating public schools: A handbook for local officials. Norman, OK: Bureau of Government Research, University of Oklahoma. (ED215005)


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

    Speeches/Meeting Papers - Unpublished presentation (microfiche-only)

    • Kondrick, L. C., & Franklin, K. K. (2003). A conceptual model for a task analysis of methods in action research design. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Biloxi, MS. (ED482468)


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

    In the 7th edition of APA Style, the definition of what is considered a published thesis or dissertation has changed.

    This type of work is considered "unpublished" if it was retrieved directly from the college or university in print form.

    This type of work is considered "published" if it was retrieved from a database (such as ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global), university archives, or personal webpage (Section 10.6).

    For Published works, include

    publication number (if applicable)
    type of work & institution name in square brackets [  ]
    name of source holding online work
    and for works published online but not in a database: URL


    Master's thesis from a database (Published). 

    • Smith-LaBrash, S. (2010). Influence of learning styles, gender, self-rated computer experience, and age on preference for computer-assisted learning versus traditional learning (Publication No. 1483122) [Master's thesis, Northern Michigan University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. 



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    Master's thesis published online (not in a database) from an institutional repository (sometimes referred to as a Commons, or has ETD/handle in url). Provide name of repository.

    • Taylor, Janelle N. (2018). Measuring the success of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan students at a nonmetropolitan university [Master's thesis, Northern Michigan University]. NMU Commons. https://commons.nmu.edu/theses/564/



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

     

    Unpublished Master's thesis (acquired in print form)

    • Paulosky, K. A. (1997). Knowledge and attitudes of pain and activities of nurse administrators [Unpublished master's thesis]. Northern Michigan University.



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    In the 7th edition of APA Style, the definition of what is considered a published thesis or dissertation has changed.

    This type of work is considered "unpublished" if it was retrieved directly from the college or university in print form.

    This type of work is considered "published" if it was retrieved from a database (such as ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global), university archives, or personal webpage (Section 10.6).

    For Published works, include

    publication number (if applicable)
    type of work & institution name in square brackets [  ]
    name of source holding online work
    and for works published online but not in a database: URL

     

     

    Doctoral dissertation from a database (Published)

    • Richardson, L. S. (2010). Elementary teachers' perceptions of grade retention (Publication No. 3416301) [Doctoral dissertation, The University of Southern Mississippi]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

     

    Doctoral Dissertation Published online (not in a database) from an institutional repository (sometimes referred to as a Commons, or has ETD/handle in url). Provide name of repository.

    • Naylor, S. M. (2007). Understanding graduate student constructs for finding meaning in the advising experience: A qualitative case study of incoming master's of social work students [Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina Greensboro]. NC Docs. http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/umi-uncg-1429.pdf



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    Unpublished Doctoral dissertation (acquired in print form)

    • Puncochar, J. M. (1996). Confidence in individual and group decision-making: When two heads are worse than one [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Minnesota.



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

     

    Graphic representation of data derived from a data set / data bank
    When a figure (graph, map, chart, etc.) or table is generated/created from a data set/data bank available online, use the following to reference the data set. Since data sets/banks are frequently updated, provide the URL of the initial web page used to generate the graphic. Note to also properly caption & cite the resulting graphic or table. See examples of how to caption & cite tables & figures from another tab on this APA style guide.
     

    The APA Manual 7th ed. indicates that personal communications include letters, memos, telephone conversations, some electronic communications (e.g., e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), etc. Basically, "works that cannot be recovered by readers" (Section 8.9, p. 260). 

    In the new edition, there is extensive discussion about citing "Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples" (pp. 260-261).

    Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:

         Narrative citation: J. Campbell (personal communication, October 13, 2019). 

         Parenthetical citation: (L. Brothen, personal communication, June 6, 2004).

    Basic In-text citation styles

     

    From Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 266), by the American Psychological Association, 2020 (https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000). Copyright 2020 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.

    MLA Style to APA Style References (7th Edition)

    Creating References
    Transitioning from MLA Style (Handbook, 8th ed., 2016)
    to
    APA Style 7th edition (Publication Manual, 7th ed., 2020) 

    Created by Prof. Mike Strahan
    Updated 1/16/2020

    Found the following work while searching one of the Library databases, and retrieved online through direct subscription with publisher.

    Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities
    Hugh W. Catts, Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges and Katherin Mendoza
    Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 42, No. 2, 163-176 (2009). doi:10.1177/0022219408326219
     

    MLA Works Cited entry (retrieved from publisher web site):

    Catts, Hugh W., Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges 

              and Katherin Mendoza. "Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and

              Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities." Journal of Learning

              Disabilities, vol. 42, no. 2, March/April 2009, pp. 163-176. doi:10.1177/0022219408326219. 

    [Note that if we had found the full-text of this article in an online database, the name of the database
    in italics would be inserted between the page numbers and DOI.]
     

    APA Reference entry 7th edition. DOI assigned. Must include issue number when provided:

    Catts, H. W., Petscher, Y., Schatschneider, C., Bridges, M. S., & Mendoza, K. (2009).

              Floor effects associated with universal screening and their impact on the early

              identification of reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 163-176. 

              https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219408326219

     

    When using 7th edition style, here is how to cite in-text:

    Parenthetical: (Catts et al., 2009)

    Narrative: Catts et al. (2009)

    Direct quote: (Catts et al., 2009, p. 163)

     

    Explanation of APA reference components

     

    Reference
    Section
    APA format & notes
    Author

    Use last name, first and middle initials. For works with one author, list it. For works with two authors, list both and separate by an ampersand ( & ).

    New for 7th edition: For works with 3 thru 20 authors, list all of them, and add an ampersand (&) before the last author. For works with 21 or more authors list first 19, an ellipse (three dots ... ) then last author. These are major changes from APA Style 6th edition guidelines.

    Publication Year For journal articles, only provide the year. For magazine articles, include year followed by month. For example: (2008, June). For newspaper articles, provide: year, month, and day (2008, July 10).
    Article Title Only capitalize first letter of first word for title and subtitle. Also capitalize proper names, acronyms, & abbreviations. Unlike MLA, no quotation marks.
    Journal Title Capitalize all words except articles. Entire title in italics.
    Volume Number

    Italics

    If the publication year is also used for the volume number, provide that year in the volume position of the reference.

    Issue Number

    New for 7th edition: When issue number is provided, it must be included in the reference.

    Page Numbers

    Include all page numbers where article appears. Do not use sloppy format, such as 163-76; instead write complete range: 163-176.

    New for 7th edition: If journal is published online-only and articles  are numbered or assigned an eLocator, provide that number preceded by the word: Article

    Examples:

    Article 55

    Article e4567

    DOI - Digital Object Identifier

    Unique number assigned to primarily journal articles, and some 
    e-books and e-book chapters.

    Note that not all articles are assigned a DOI, especially popular magazine and newspaper articles. The DOI always begins with 10 followed by a period and four digits and a slash. Example: 10.1177/

    Remaining part of identifier may be all numbers, all letters, or combination of letters and numbers.

    APA style 7th edition continues with the following format of the DOI to begin with https://doi.org/ 
    followed by the assigned DOI. 

    Example: https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2017.1391324

    Researchers & students are expected to follow the current standard format for the DOI in their APA references.

     

    Creating References in APA Style 7th edition (Publication Manual, 7th Edition, 2020) 

    Created by Professor Mike Strahan
    Updated 1/16/2020

    Found the following work while searching one of the Library databases, and retrieved online through direct subscription with publisher.

    Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities
    Hugh W. Catts, Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges and Katherin Mendoza
    Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 42, No. 2, 163-176 (2009). doi:10.1177/0022219408326219

     

    APA Reference entry 7th edition. DOI assigned. Must include issue number when provided.

    Catts, H. W., Petscher, Y., Schatschneider, C., Bridges, M. S., & Mendoza, K. (2009).

              Floor effects associated with universal screening and their impact on the early

              identification of reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 163-176. 

              https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219408326219

     

    When using 7th edition style, here is how to cite in-text:

    Parenthetical: (Catts et al., 2009)

    Narrative: Catts et al. (2009)

    Direct quote: (Catts et al., 2009, p. 163)

     

    Explanation of APA reference components

     

    Reference
    Section
    APA format & notes
    Author

    Use last name, first and middle initials. For works with one author, list it. For works with two authors, list both and separate by an ampersand ( & ).

    New for 7th edition: For works with 3 thru 20 authors, list all of them, and add an ampersand (&) before the last author. For works with 21 or more authors list first 19, an ellipse (three dots ... ) then last author. These are major changes from APA Style 6th edition guidelines.

    Publication Year For journal articles, only provide the year. For magazine articles, include year followed by month. For example: (2008, June). For newspaper articles, provide: year, month, and day (2008, July 10).
    Article Title Only capitalize first letter of first word for title and subtitle. Also capitalize proper names, acronyms, & abbreviations. Unlike MLA, no quotation marks.
    Journal Title Capitalize all words except articles. Entire title in italics.
    Volume Number

    Italics

    If the publication year is also used for the volume number, provide that year in the volume position of the reference.

    Issue Number

    New for 7th edition: When issue number is provided, it must be included in the reference.

    Page Numbers

    Include all page numbers where article appears. Do not use sloppy format, such as 163-76; instead write complete range: 163-176.

    New for 7th edition: If journal is published online-only and articles  are numbered or assigned an eLocator, provide that number preceded by the word: Article

    Examples:

    Article 55

    Article e4567

    DOI - Digital Object Identifier

    Unique number assigned to primarily journal articles, and some 
    e-books and e-book chapters.

    Note that not all articles are assigned a DOI, especially popular magazine and newspaper articles. The DOI always begins with 10 followed by a period and four digits and a slash. Example: 10.1177/

    Remaining part of identifier may be all numbers, all letters, or combination of letters and numbers.

    APA style 7th edition continues with the following format of the DOI to begin with https://doi.org/ 
    followed by the assigned DOI. 

    Example: https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2017.1391324

    Researchers & students are expected to follow the current standard format for the DOI in their APA references.

     

    APA Style 7th edition: How to insert page numbers, & running head with prefix "Running head" (instructor preference) (2020; HD) (3:23)
    Note: If you are using APA style 7th edition and your instructor prefers that the words "Running head" are not included, please ignore that portion of the video.

    APA Style 7th edition: Articles assigned a DOI (2020; HD) (6:00)
    Shows how to reference & cite in-text articles assigned a DOI (digital object identifier). Includes print, online, & online-only journal article examples.

    APA style 7th edition: Articles not assigned a DOI (2020; HD) (6:55)
    Shows how to reference & cite in-text articles which were NOT assigned a DOI (digital object identifier). Includes articles retrieved from most academic research databases or print version.

    APA Style 7th edition: Books (2020; HD) (6:03)
    Shows how to reference & cite in-text books. Includes print, online, assigned a DOI, and ebook accessed directly from the publisher (textbook example).

    APA Style 7th edition: Course Materials (2020; HD) (3:01)
    Shows how to reference & cite in-text course materials.

    APA Style 7th edition: Webpages (2020; HD) (4:16)
    shows how to reference & cite in-text webpages. Includes authored by individual, organization, & government agencies.

    APA Style 7th edition: Video materials (2020; HD) (3:42)
    Shows how to reference & cite in-text videos. Includes YouTube & films on DVD.

    APA Style 7th edition Comprehensive version of above videos (2020; SD) (20:33) [HD version forthcoming]
    Shows how to format various types of journal articles, books, webpages, videos, and course materials.

    APA Style 7th edition: How to locate & reference an ebook through NMU Library (SD) (9:18)
    Shows how to access an ebook through NMU Library and then create a reference & in-text citation using APA style 7th edition.

    APA Style 7th edition: How-to reference articles with DOIs (comprehensive)
    This video shows how to format various types of journal articles assigned a DOI, and how to format in-text citations for each of these. Examples include articles with two individual authors, three thru 20 authors, 21 or greater authors, articles published in online-only journals which use article/document/eLocator number in place of page numbers, journals which use publication year as volume number, individuals with organizations as authors, articles retrieved from Cochrane database, and articles published in advance of print.

    APA Style 7th edition: How-to reference books (comprehensive)
    This video shows how to format various types of books without DOIs; with assigned DOIs; textbooks accessed directly from the publisher; with authors; with editors; authored chapters in edited books; authored chapters in books created by authors; contributors who wrote chapters; and where author and publisher are the same.

    HANDOUTS AND GUIDES FOR 7TH EDITION

    The following are instructional aids for the seventh edition Publication Manual. They can be used in homes, classrooms, libraries, or anywhere you are learning or teaching APA Style. 

    Sample Papers (student & professional) 

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