Education: Graduate

This Library guide to Education Graduate-level Resources was last updated: 9/12/2022

** New ** NMU Olson Library is now using RapidILL, where most article requests are processed within 24 hours. 


Mike @ Reference

Updated: August 24, 2022 for fall semester

Professor Mike Strahan is generally available for assistance weekday afternoons in the library, and evenings until 9 pm ET via Live Chat or Zoom. However, on Fridays he is not available after 4 pm.

Teaching classes and committee meetings among other professional commitments will affect this schedule.

Assistance is available via Live Chat (see box on right side of this library guide), EduCat Messaging, email or phone (details below my picture).

Professor Strahan is also available via Zoom by Appointment.
Zoom works best for small groups who are working on a project or presentation, where sharing your document while discussing is more-beneficial.  

Students may schedule an appointment with Professor Strahan via live chat, clicking on the "Schedule Appointment" button, through EduCat Messaging, via emailClick here to email Professor Mike Strahan or phone.

For those students who attend classes on-campus, Professor Strahan is available in person at the Public Services desk. No appointment is necessary, just stop by:

Mondays: 1 - 4 pm

Tuesdays: 1 - 4 pm

Fridays on call from his office: 1 - 4 pm

He is also available in his office (Harden Hall 233) afternoons.

Professor Strahan looks forward to helping you with APA style, searching, and questions about Library services.


Connect to Library resources using a non-NMU internet provider

Library resources are restricted to IP addresses assigned to computers using the NMU network.

If you are using an internet provider other than NMU and want to access Library eBooks or articles, you will need to use the Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client (otherwise known as a VPN client).

The VPN client is already installed on all NMU computers (Windows & Mac). If using a personal computer, you can download the software from the links below.

After logging onto the VPN client with your NMU ID and password, you are assigned an IP address associated with NMU and are able to access our resources.


MLA Style to APA Style References (7th Edition)

Creating References
Transitioning from MLA Style (Handbook, 9th ed., 2021)
APA Style 7th edition (Publication Manual, 7th ed., 2020) 

Created by Prof. Mike Strahan
Updated 3/7/2022

Found the following work while searching one of the Library databases, and retrieved online through direct subscription with publisher.

Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities
Hugh W. Catts, Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges and Katherin Mendoza
Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 42, No. 2, 163-176 (2009). doi:10.1177/0022219408326219

MLA Works Cited entry (retrieved from publisher web site):

Catts, Hugh W., Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges 

          and Katherin Mendoza. "Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and

          Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities." Journal of Learning

          Disabilities, vol. 42, no. 2, Mar./Apr. 2009, pp. 163-176. 

[Note that if we had found the full-text of this article in an online database, the name of the database
in italics would be inserted between the page numbers and DOI.]

APA Reference entry 7th edition. DOI assigned. Must include issue number when provided:

Catts, H. W., Petscher, Y., Schatschneider, C., Bridges, M. S., & Mendoza, K. (2009).

          Floor effects associated with universal screening and their impact on the early

          identification of reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 163-176. 


When using 7th edition style, here is how to cite in-text:

Parenthetical: (Catts et al., 2009)

Narrative: Catts et al. (2009)

Direct quote: (Catts et al., 2009, p. 163)


Explanation of APA reference components


APA format & notes

Use last name, first and middle initials. For works with one author, list it. For works with two authors, list both and separate by an ampersand ( & ).

New for 7th edition: For works with 3 thru 20 authors, list all of them, and add an ampersand (&) before the last author. For works with 21 or more authors list first 19, an ellipse (three dots ... ) then last author. These are major changes from APA Style 6th edition guidelines.

Publication Year For journal articles, only provide the year. For magazine articles, include year followed by month. For example: (2008, June). For newspaper articles, provide: year, month, and day (2008, July 10).
Article Title Only capitalize first letter of first word for title and subtitle. Also capitalize proper names, acronyms, & abbreviations. Unlike MLA, no quotation marks.
Journal Title Capitalize all words except articles. Entire title in italics.
Volume Number


If the publication year is also used for the volume number, provide that year in the volume position of the reference.

Issue Number

New for 7th edition: When issue number is provided, it must be included in the reference.

Page Numbers

Include all page numbers where article appears. Do not use sloppy format, such as 163-76; instead write complete range: 163-176.

New for 7th edition: If journal is published online-only and articles  are numbered or assigned an eLocator, provide that number preceded by the word: Article


Article 55

Article e4567

DOI - Digital Object Identifier

Unique number assigned to primarily journal articles, and some 
e-books and e-book chapters.

Note that not all articles are assigned a DOI, especially popular magazine and newspaper articles. The DOI always begins with 10 followed by a period and four digits and a slash. Example: 10.1177/

Remaining part of identifier may be all numbers, all letters, or combination of letters and numbers.

APA style 7th edition continues with the following format of the DOI to begin with 
followed by the assigned DOI. 


Researchers & students are expected to follow the current standard format for the DOI in their APA references.


How to APA Style 7th edition cite the Michigan Revised School Code (1976)

Prepared by Prof. Mike Strahan; endorsed by Dr. Bethney Bergh

rev. 3/13/2020

Adapting the State Statute in State Code example which appears in the APA Manual, 7th ed., p. 363.

Information as it appears online from the State of Michigan Legislative Council:

380.1280a Specialized or alternative school or program.

Sec. 1280a.

   The board of a school district or intermediate school district that operates or participates in a consortium
that operates an alternative educational program pursuant to section 1301, a vocational-technical skills
center or other separate vocational education program, or any other type of specialized or alternative
school or program shall ensure that the requirements of sections 1204a, 1277a, 1278, and 1280 are met
for each of those schools or programs.

History: Add. 1993, Act 335, Imd. Eff. Dec. 31, 1993
Popular Name: Act 451

APA Reference example:

Michigan Revised School Code Act, 451 M.C.L. §380.1280a (1976 & 1993).

APA In-text citation examples:

(Michigan Revised School Code Act, 1976 & 1993)

Michigan Revised School Code Act of 1976 and 1993

Michigan Revised School Code Act (1976 & 1993)


  1. All of your references from the Revised School Code will begin with:

    Michigan Revised School Code Act, 451 M.C.L. §380.
  2. Rest of reference is the specific section or section range,
    followed by (1976 &
    and latest year indicated from the source History line.
  3. When referencing/citing laws/statutes/codes, nothing is italicized in either the reference or in-text citation. However, APA rules are different when citing court cases.

Office of Head Start, Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center. (2020, May 12). Engaging community partners

          to strengthen family services. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and 



How to cite this work in-text:
Parenthetical only time cited: (Office of Head Start, Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center, 2020) 
Parenthetical first time cited: (Office of Head Start, Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center [ECLKC], 2020)
Parenthetical subsequent times cited: (ECLKC, 2020)

Narrative only time cited: Office of Head Start, Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center (2020)
Narrative first time cited: Office of Head Start, Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center (ECLKC, 2020)
Narrative subsequent times cited: ECLKC (2020)

Direct quote only time cited: (Office of Head Start, Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center, 2020, para. 1) 
Direct quote first time cited: (Office of Head Start, Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center [ECLKC], 2020, para. 1)
Direct quote subsequent times: (ECLKC, 2020, para. 2)

Important: You must use the links below to access the new OneSearch w/library catalog, Google Scholar, ERIC, etc. Otherwise, you will not be able to retrieve NMU Library's thousands of online journals through these databases. 

When searching for articles, in order to limit results to peer-reviewed works, click on "Peer reviewed" box below search boxes (except for Google Scholar which does not have such a limiter). 

New 2020 OneSearch which now includes NMU Library Catalog (advanced search screen)

Use this link to access the advanced search screen, where users may indicate which fields to search (e.g., title, author, or subject) instead of everything. Also allows the searcher to set some limits (material type such as books or journals, language, and publication years) before running the search.

Journal articles, books, and other resources across many subjects. Provides a "cited by" feature to indicate other papers containing a source paper as a reference.

To access Google Scholar through a non-NMU internet provider, please use the VPN client: Cisco AnyConnect. For those using an NMU-issued computer, AnyConnect is already installed. For those using a personal computer, you download & install AnyConnect using the information on this library guide.

Journal articles, books, and other resources relating to education--from early childhood to higher education. Views 'education' very broadly and covers areas such as outdoor education, corporate training, speech language therapy, etc. 1966 to present.

Journals, books, and other resources covering psychology and psychological aspects of related disciplines including: anthropology, business, education, law, linguistics, medicine, nursing, pharmacology, physiology, and sociology. 1805 to present.

Journal articles, books, and other resources on all aspects of sociology and related disciplines. Subjects include demography, environmental interactions, family and social welfare, social psychology, human biology, women's studies, health, medicine, law, etc. 1952 to present; abstracts since 1974.

Journal articles covering biomedical research and the clinical sciences including nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, pharmacy, allied health, and pre-clinical sciences. Also good coverage of literature in cellular and molecular biology and biochemistry. Formerly known as MEDLINE. Mid 1960's to present.

Access note: Must use this special URL for NMU Logo links to appear in article abstracts

Journals, books, and other resources on subjects including nursing, emergency services, nutrition, occupational therapy, physical therapy, optometry, public health, speech-language pathology & audiology, and surgical technology. 1937 to present.

The Michigan eLibrary Catalog (MeLCat) is a catalog of the books, audios, and videos from approximately 450 Michigan libraries that you can borrow and request for pick-up at Olson Library. Use MeLCat to quickly request items not owned by NMU or NMU-owned items checked out to another user.



Instructional Videos

OneSearch Guide

OneSearch is the central index to the library's collections. There are 4 search options within OneSearch: Everything, Articles, Library Catalog, and Course Reserves.  Each tab below details how to search in these options.  Two separate tabs walk you through requesting something via Interlibrary Loan (ILL).  The last tab, Using Advanced Search, describes ways to use that method across all 4 options. 

Suggest a Topic:  If you have a topic you would like to see represented in this guide, send us Feedback.

Boolean image of OneSearch

Everything, the default search, will search all of the collections at once.  It can be overwhelming because of the sheer number of hits that result.  You might consider limiting your search to the Library Catalog or Articles.  It's up to you.

A search for climate change, from the search box on the library homepage, looks like this:

library homepage search

The search from here is immediately in Everything, which brings back, in this example, nearly 11 million results!  That's too many.  Searching from now on, once you're in OneSearch, allows you to tell the system where to search.

sample seaerch 2

Let's alter our search by putting quotes around "climate change", because it's a phrase.  We aren't interested in climate or change by themselves, but the phrase "climate change".  We'll still search Everything, and get over 7 million this time, but then we'll narrow the results down even more.

"climate change" as a phrase

Off to the right-hand side of your over 7 million hits is "Refine your results".  Here is where you have the power to significantly narrow down your reults.  The image below, adjusted for space, indicates what you can narrow your results to.

Refining your results

As you can see, there is a lot of sorting and narrowing down you can do.  If you find something that is not available immediately, request it.  The image below is what you'll see.  The Interlibrary Loan tab on this guide walks you through this process.

ILL sign in

Articles searches the full-text of peer-reviewed journals, magazines, newspapers and other periodicals. It also searches the full-text of ebooks, streaming video, dissertations/theses, conference papers, and government documents.  It really is a lot more than what you might consider articles.  Keeping with our "climate change" example, let's limit the results to articles:

climate change article results

To limit these results to Peer-Reviewed Journals, Click the Peer-reviewed journals link on the right-hand side to limit results to this type of material. If limiting to multiple availability options, click each checkbox then click Apply Filters.

limit to peer review

This will further narrow down your results--can you see a pattern?  The more you select, the narrower your results.  Articles available online will indicate such available online and might require you to log in with your NMU username and password and 2-factor authentication to a database:

pick your database

If you see an article that you want but OneSearch indicates that there is no online access, request it.  The image below is what you'll see.  The Interlibrary Loan tab on this guide walks you through this process. 

how to get it

Library Catalog searches the complete holdings of the library's print and electronic collection. This includes books, book chapter titles, video and sound recordings, maps and government documents, and the Pre-K thru 12 collection. You will not find articles in a Library Catalog search.  Video: How to find a book (1:18).  Video: How to find an ebook (1:45).

library catalog climate change

The default list is relevance--you may want to sort by date or title--it's up to you.  You also can limit your results to what we have physically in the library or results that are electronic only (you can view these anywhere on your device) as well as the material type.

library sort 1

You are also able to limit your search to a particular author, date, language, etc, including location.  

location in library

Clicking on the title of a book (or DVD or whatever NMU has in its physical collection) brings up more information.  In this example, this publication is both here at the library and online:

Bibliographic record

Limit results to: Holocaust Collection. As part of your search include the phrase "NMU Holocaust"., and you can further limit your results to various Material Types (books, videos, etc.) in the "Refine your results" section.

primo holocaust collection

Course Reserves, will look for those items (usually books or a video) set aside by your professor for a specific course.  These often have a limit of 2 hours in-library use only.  To search, simply type in your class number.  For example, DFST 252.  The material is available at the service desk.

course reserves


In addition to requesting a book through OneSearch, you can also search for and request books through MelCat and WorldCat directly.

As much as you have access to electronically, even more is available elsewhere with just a short wait.  Within OneSearch it is easy to request books or media or articles that are owned by another library.  Here is a book we do not have: 

ILL book

There is no call number and no indication of online access.  "Check for available services" really means "Pleases sign in to check if there are any request options".  Click the Sign in text.  You will be prompted to sign in with your NMU credentials and, if you've activated it, your 2-factor authentication:

log on to NMU

Once you are signed in, you have a choice on which kind of ILL service you'd like.  Request @ MelCat is a statewide system for Michigan libraries (the item might arrive faster), while the @ Interlibrary is nationwide.  

ILL choice

And here I have to stop and say that we are working out some bugs.  If you have gotten this far within OneSearch and have noticed "things aren't right", you are correct.  Give us a call or Ask Us (right hand side) of screen, and we'll sort things out.  We appreciate your patience.

Within OneSearch (and most databases), requesting an article that NMU does not have is the same as requesting a book we do not have.  Video: Interlibrary loan of an article (some sign-in images have changed since) (2:36).  Within databases, look for the Get it@NMU link; within OneSearch, "Check for available services" really means "Pleases sign in to check if there are any request options".  Click the Sign in text.  You will be prompted to sign in with your NMU credentials and, if you've activated it, your 2-factor authentication:

log on to NMU

Once you have signed on, you will be prompted to pick a method: pick Request Article @ InterLibrary Loan.  MelCat does not lend articles.

request article

Clicking that link opens up another window.  All that remains is for you to type in your phone number and select request.  We'll take it from here.  You will get an email immediately telling you that we have received it, and in a few days, an email with a link to the article.  The video at the top of this tab explains it a bit more.

To the right of the search box, once you have made a search, is Advanced Search.  Although most people continue to use the single search box, it is to your advantage to switch to the advanced search screen.  It may look intimidating, but it gives you the means to make a better search.  Each of the 4 search options can be searched this way.

Advanced search

You can change where you want to search.  This is helpful in narrowing down resources to relevant ones.  For example, in the search below, "great lakes" has been changed to subject, microplastics has also been added as a subject, and a third line has been added with fish.  Your searches can be created the same way.

Advanced search 2

33 results is a manageble number to look through.  Further narrowing down is possible (material type, date, availability, etc).


  • The fastest way to borrow something not available at NMU.
  • Recommended for books, DVDs, CDs

    Interlibrary Loan

  • The best option for articles or book chapters.
  • Can't find the materials you need at NMU Collection or MelCat?
  • Submit an Interlibrary Loan request and we'll search libraries around the world.

Legal Resources

The law resources in Olson Library can help you to:

  • Find the text of federal and state laws and regulations.
  • Find interpretations of federal and state laws given in the courts.
  • Trace the legislative history of bills.
  • Keep up-to-date on legislation, court decisions, and administrative rulings in general and specific fields.

The law collection covers most federal law, but it is by no means complete. The library has state court decisions only for Michigan, but you may find more recent decisions for other states by consulting the general web resources. Many law books are updated annually with pocket-parts inserted in the back. Make sure to check the pocket-part updates, otherwise you may miss a crucial change in the law.

Use OneSearch to locate books on various legal topics.  Also used to determine if the library owns a particular law journal.


Official Guide to U.S. Law Schools Online & KF 273 A86
Black's Law Dictionary KF 156 B53
Burton, William C. Legal Thesaurus KF 156 B856
Cohen, Morris. Legal Research in a Nutshell KF 240 C54
Nolo's Free Dictionary of Law Terms and Legal Definitions  
The Peoples Law Dictionary from  
Garner's Dictionary of Legal Usage KF 156 .G367 2011
Introduction to Legal Research on WestLaw Next Link to .pdf guide

A legal encyclopedia provides summaries of legal principles and is one of the best initial places to search if you are unfamiliar with a legal topic.

Encyclopedia of the American Constitution KF 4548 E53 1986
Oxford Companion to American Law KF 154 .O96 2002
Michigan Law and Practice Encyclopedia
     The legal encyclopedia for Michigan law.
KFM 4265 M5
West's Encyclopedia of American Law  KF 154.W47 1998
Legal Periodicals. Westlaw provides access to over 800 full-text legal journals and law reviews. In Westlaw, click on "Secondary Sources".
American Law Reports. Attorney-written articles that cite, summarize, and analyze case law on a particular legal issue. In Westlaw, click on "Secondary Sources".

A. Statutes, Laws and Codes

United States Statutes at Large KF 50 A2
     v. 1,8,10-11,13-14,16-63,70-present ; 1789-present
    The official publication of all laws passed during a session of Congress.  Statutes are published complete and in the order they were passed. Available in the Olson Library book collection, 3rd floor: KF 50 .A2 (v.1, 8, 10-11, 13-14, 16-63, 70-present; 1789-present). Published by the U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO). Available online from and from The Library of Congress.
United States Code Annotated (USCA)
In Westlaw, click on "Federal Materials"
The entire body of federal law currently in force, organized into 50 subject divisions (titles).  Includes references to court decisions and articles related to particular laws.  The United States Code (U.S.C.) is freely available from the House of Representatives and from the Government Publishing Office, but neither contains the annotated information (court decisions, articles, etc.) found in the U.S.C.A. Cornell has an online U.S.C. that is generated from the House version.

B. Federal Court Decisions


Supreme Court Reporter
     In addition to providing the complete decisions of the Supreme Court, including dissenting opinions, this resource contains the headnotes of the major points of law for each case.
United States Reports, v. 389- ; 1967- present KF 101 A3
     Complete decisions of the Supreme Court, including dissenting opinions.  Does not contain headnotes.
     Available from the Library of Congress; and from findlaw.
Findlaw's U.S. Supreme Court News  
     Daily updates on the actions of the court. An additional resource that lists cases per month is available from the Cornell's Legal Information Institute's Supreme Court Collection.
Federal Reporter
     Contains the complete decisions of cases decided from the U.S. Courts of Appeal and Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals decisions for each circuit are also available online (date of coverage varies by circuit, but generally is around 1995 to the present).
Federal Supplement
     Contains the complete decisions of selected cases decided in the U.S. District Courts and U.S. Customs Court. District Court information is available on the Web, but is highly variable from one court to another. Most courts will provide links to opinions, but some do not.

C. Administrative Rulings

Federal Register  
     The daily compilation of executive and administrative rules and regulations which have the force of law. Indexed daily. The Federal Register is available on the Web from 1994 to the present.
Code of Federal Regulations  
     A cumulation of the Federal Register arranged in 50 subject divisions or titles updated in sections throughout the year. Volume 1 is a general index. The Code of Federal Regulations is available on the Web from 1996 to the present.

D.  Congress

Congressional Record  

    1873-1919 in microfilm [KF 35]; 1919-1980 cumulative editions in stacks [KF 35].

    The transcripts of all debates held on the floor of Congress. Daily editions are indexed every two weeks. Cumulated for each session of Congress. Indexes by bill or resolution number, name and subject. Indexes also include a section entitled "History of Bills and Resolutions" which gives a legislative history of each bill introduced. The Congressional Record is available from from the 65th Congress (1917) to the present and 1994 onwards from the Government Publishing Office

A. Statutes, Laws, and Codes

Public and Local Acts of the Legislature KFM 4225 A2
     The official publication of all laws passed by the Michigan Legislature. An annual publication with laws published complete and in the order in which they were passed. The Public and Local Acts of the Legislature is available online from 1997.
Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated
    The entire current law of Michigan arranged into subject divisions. Contains references to relevant court decisions.
Michigan Compiled Laws KFM 4230 1979 A23
     Same as Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated but does not contain references to court decisions. The current Michigan Compiled Laws is available on the Web; older copies are in print on the 3rd floor.
Michigan Law & Practice Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. KFM 4265 M52
     A multi-volume quick reference for legal personnel.

B.  Court Decisions


Digests are subject indexes to court decisions. A short summary or headnote is provided for the point of law discussed in each case listing.

Provides access to a variety of legal information, including federal and state case law, the United States Code Annotated, the Code of Federal Regulations, the Federal Register, state statutes and administrative codes, and more. Also included are 900 law journals and reviews.

Indexes Michigan court cases and Federal cases arising in or appealed from Michigan. Click on the "Go" button under their KeySearch, select your topic, then Michigan.
Michigan Appellate Digest  
Summarizes and indexes all published Michigan Supreme Court and Court of Appeals decisions since 1992. Select the By Keyword tab for the most comprehensive search.


Michigan Reports
     Official publication of all decisions of Michigan Supreme Court.  Cases after 1980 are continued in North Western Reporter 2d. You can also search for Michigan Supreme Court cases on the Web from October 2001 to the present.
Michigan Appeals Reports
     Official publication of all decisions of the Michigan Court of Appeals. You can also search for Michigan Court of Appeals cases on the Web from August 1992 to the present.
North Western Reporter 2nd 
     Contains the complete decisions of the Michigan Supreme Court and Michigan Court of Appeals.  The decisions are the same as those that appear in the official editions.  All three sets are indexed in the Michigan Digest.


Citators provide access to the judicial history and interpretations of reported court cases, verify the current status of each case, and locate earlier cases that have been cited in later court cases.

Please refer to the citators explained under the Federal Court Decisions for a brief introduction to the KeyCite System.

C. Administrative Rulings

Michigan Register  
     The state version of the Federal Register issued monthly.  Contains new and proposed rules issued by state agencies.  Approved rules and regulations are compiled in the online version of the Michigan Administrative Code. The Michigan Register is available on the Web from 2000 to the present.
Michigan Administrative Code KFM 4235 1979 A2 
     A compilation of administrative rules and regulations issued by various state agencies and departments. The Michigan Administrative Code, updated daily, is available on the Web.
American Federal Tax Reports — series 1, v. 1-52 ; series 2, v. 1-83 KF 6280 A27
Reports of the Tax Court of the United States (from the Court itself)
Reports of the United States Board of Tax Appeals
Tax Court Memorandum Decisions — v.1-31, 1942-1972 KF 6280 A226, 
U.S. Tax Cases — v. 1-73, 1913-1973 KF 6280 A232
United States Tax Reporter  
    Internal revenue code  v. 1-2 (loose-leaf) KF 6277 U5
    Income taxes v. 1-18 (loose-leaf) KF 6365 U5

Provides access to a variety of legal information, including federal and state case law, the United States Code Annotated, the Code of Federal Regulations, the Federal Register, state statutes and administrative codes, and more. Also included are 900 law journals and reviews.

Includes over 1,200 full-text journals and over 2.5 million records, including book reviews and case citations. Offers information centered on the discipline of law and legal topics such as criminal justice, international law, organized crime, ethics, the environment. Brought to you by the Library of Michigan via the Michigan eLibrary (

Contains thousands of legal forms and more than 310 full-text legal reference books. Brought to you by the Library of Michigan via the Michigan eLibrary (

The following mega-sites will be of most useful in locating legislative and case law for states other than Michigan. Note, however, the dates of coverage for these resources are limited. These sites also provide links to law schools, legal organizations or associations, international law, news, law journals, etc.

Legal Information Institute
Internet Legal Resource Guide
Guide to Law Online from the Library of Congress
General Legal Research Sites - Free and Commercial from the Law Librarian's Society of Washington, D.C.
Google Scholar (select "Case Law")
Locating the Law, 5th edition, revised (2011)
Michigan Legal Help also the Law Library of Michigan.
Gale Legalforms Resource provided by MeL

The basic citation form for any legal reference you may find is:

48 U.S. 661
volume number source page number

Holdings vary for each source listed below.  Consult the links for detailed holdings information.

Law abbreviations are not consistent, but in general the law materials in Olson Library are abbreviated as follows:

A.F.T.R. (RIA) American Federal Tax Reports (Research Institute of America) KF 6280 A27
A.F.T.R.2d (RIA) American Federal Tax Reports, second series (Research Institute of America) KF 6280 A27
B.T.A Reports of the United States Board of Tax Appeals
C.F.R. Code of Federal Regulations Online at the Government Publishing Office
Am. Jur. 2d American Jurisprudence
E.R.C. Environment Reporter - Cases (Bureau of National Affairs) See 
F.R. Federal Register Online
F.2d Federal Reporter, Second Series
F.3d Federal Reporter, Third Series
F.Supp. Federal Supplement
F.Supp 2d Federal Supplement, Second Series
M.C.L. Michigan Compiled Laws KFM 4230 1979 A23
M.C.L.A. Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated
Mich. Michigan Reports State of Michigan
Mich. App. Michigan Appeals Reports State of Michigan
N.W.2d North Western Reporter, Second Series
S. Ct. Supreme Court Reporter
Stat. U.S. Statutes at Large KF 50 A2 & 
T.C. Reports of the Tax Court of the United States United States Tax Court
T.C.M. (CCH) Tax Court Memorandum Decisions (Commerce Clearing House) KF 6280 A226
U.S. U.S. Reports KF 101 A3 & 
U.S.C. U.S. Code Online only
U.S.C.A. U.S. Code Annotated
U.S. Tax Cas.
U.S. Tax Cases (Commerce Clearing House) KF 6280 A23


For abbreviations not listed above consult some of the following sources:

The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation KF 245 B58
Understanding and mastering The bluebook: a guide for students and practitioners KF 245 .B37 2007
Michigan Appellate Opinion Manual (for Michigan, sets forth the Court's current standards for citation of authority, quotation, and style in opinions of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals) Online
Common Legal Citations and Where to Find Them Online
Common Abbreviations and Legal Citation Examples for Selected Federal Government Documents: Legislative, Regulatory and Statutory Online


This NMU library guide revised 9/12/2022

Access NMU Library License to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) (2013)

Access NMU Library License to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., Text Revision (DSM-5-TR) (2022)


How to cite using APA style 7th edition

APA Reference of entire work:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

        (5th ed.).

How to cite this work in-text:
Parenthetical: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
Narrative: American Psychiatric Association (2013)


APA Reference formats of DSM-5, citing specific chapter (each assigned DOI):

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual

        of mental disorders (5th ed.).

How to cite this work in-text:
Parenthetical: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
Narrative: There are a variety of anxiety disorders discussed in the American Psychiatric Association's (2013)   Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5).
Direct quote: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, Panic Disorder section, para. 2)

APA Reference of entire work:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

        (5th ed.).

How to cite this work in-text:
Parenthetical: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
Narrative: American Psychiatric Association (2013)


How to cite using APA style 6th edition

APA Reference formats of DSM-5, citing specific chapter (each assigned DOI):

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual

        of mental disorders (5th ed.). Retrieved from


APA Reference of entire work:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

        (5th ed.). Retrieved from

Measurement & Evaluation 


Sources for Reviewing or Obtaining Tests
(Note: Many tests must be purchased--they are not freely available.)

In addition to the following sources, you can search the various journal article databases to locate
information about testing instruments.

Mental Measurements Yearbook
Contains over 2,000 timely test reviews. Typically reviews include descriptive information, one or two professional reviews, and an extensive list of references to pertinent literature. To be reviewed in the MMY a test must be commercially available, be published in the English language, and be new, revised, or widely used. 

Print editions 2nd (1940) through 17th (2007) available in the Olson Library Book Collection, 
BF 431 .B932 

The ETS Test Collection
The Educational Testing Service (ETS) Test Collection contains descriptions of over 25,000 
tests and research instruments. There is a short description of each testing instrument along with
availability information.


Theses & Dissertations

Updated: April 18, 2021

The largest database of graduate dissertations and theses. Almost 5 million citations and over 2.6 million full-text works. Useful for literature reviews, in-depth scholarship and extensive bibliographies with citation links. Indexing 1637 to present; full-text 1743 to present. 


  1. This new subscription is THE database which holds online access to millions of dissertations & theses worldwide in PDF format. It is provided by NMU Olson Library. As such, the NMU community now has free access these works from all institutions which submit these works to ProQuest.
  2. When viewing results: 
  • Full text - PDF is the complete thesis/dissertation.
  • Preview - PDF is only 24-page preview.


Open Access through digital institutional repositories at other universities *full text
By going through NMU's institutional repository The Commons, you may access dissertations, theses, and other scholarly products. 
After clicking on this link, click on Advanced Search:

The Commons Advanced Search button

then change the "Limit Search to" field to All Repositories:

limit to all repositories

and then enter your search terms. Click on the green + sign to add a line.


Theses Canada
Contain print and electronic Canadian theses and dissertations. Multiple search options are available.


Print and Electronic Theses *some full text
OneSearch contains print and electronic theses for NMU. You have two options for locating theses. One is to browse by subject area. The other is to perform a keyword search where you can combine the term thesis with an author's name, keyword term (e.g. nursing) and limit the search to the "Library catalog."

Electronic Theses Only [Fall 2006 - 2013] *full text 
NMU electronic theses are also contained in Proquest's  Dissertations & Theses @ Northern Michigan University database. This is NMU's subset of the larger Dissertations & Theses database, and allows searching & viewing of NMU theses. Although you cannot browse, you can search by: title words, advisor, subjects (author assigned), and keywords (author assigned). You may also search by department/program using the Field Code DEP
followed in parentheses by the department/program name. For example, in order to see a list of theses from the Exercise Science program:  DEP(exercise science)
Alternatively, you can search using your own keywords.

NMU Theses [2014-present] *full text
NMU electronic theses are provided in The Commons, Northern's institutional repository. You may browse by department and may search by author & keywords.
Note that the School of Nursing Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Scholarly Projects are also located in The Commons.

DNP Projects are usually not provided through dissertation resources, so we offer Nursing-specific sources below:

NMU Digital Commons Nursing Commons (also includes articles) *free full text
This Nursing Commons contains journal articles, presentations, as well as student work. Most of it is full text but occasionally the member library only inputs abstracts... but still it is another resource for finding student works at all levels of education.

Sigma Theta Tau International Virginia Henderson Library (includes DNP Capstone Projects) *free full text
Repository of of nursing capstones, master theses, and some dissertations. It is an excellent, high quality free resource.


  • The fastest way to borrow something not available at NMU.
  • Recommended for books, DVDs, CDs

    Interlibrary Loan

  • The best option for articles or book chapters.
  • Can't find the materials you need at NMU Collection or MelCat?
  • Submit an Interlibrary Loan request and we'll search libraries around the world.


(Revised 12/20/2020)

Zotero is a free research manager which helps you collect, organize, and manage your sources. This application works with Google Chrome, FireFox, Microsoft Edge, Opera, & Safari web browsers, and integrates with word processing programs such as MS Word & Google Docs. Zotero facilitates quick in-text citing, and one-click generation of references according to a multitude of styles including APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, & journal-specific.

Creating an account on Zotero's website allows you to sync your collections to a central point (300MB free) from multiple computers (such as work & home). It also allows you to create groups. 

Minimum operating system requirements for Zotero version 5.x:

macOS 10.11 or later, including Big Sur and Monterey
Windows 7 or later

More detailed system requirements available here:

The following steps will walk you through how to install Zotero on your browser.

Save documents & close all programs other than web browser before proceeding. This includes your word processor software.

Rationale: In order to finish the installation, Zotero may need to reboot your computer.

Rationale: The Zotero Connector which allows downloading information from the browser into
Zotero only works with these versions of the browser:

Chrome: Version 55 or higher
FireFox: Version 52 or higher
Safari 10–12 (see Safari Compatibility for Safari 13)


Once you have opened Firefox, you need to check that it is version 52 or higher. To do this, go to 
the menu heading "Help", and select "About Firefox" (see screen shot below). If it says you have a 
lower-numbered version, Mozilla will automatically download & install the latest version of FireFox.


Image showing the "about firefox "button

Google Chrome
Once you have opened Chrome, you need to check that it is version 55 or higher. To do this,
go to the upper-right corner and click on three dots (see screen shot below), highlight "Help", and select 
"About Google Chrome". If it says you have a lower-numbered version, Google will automatically 
download & install the latest version of Chrome.


Image showing the "about google chrome" menu option in google chrome.

Once you have the latest version of your browser, open it, download Zotero and install the program. The 
download interface automatically recognizes your specific browser and operating system and provides 
the appropriate choice.

If you receive a message preventing this site ( from installing software on your computer, 
click on the Allow button.

Proceed through the Setup Wizard. When asked about Setup Type (screen below), we recommend choosing Standard. You will be able to customize it later.

Image showing the setup type option on the zotero installer dialogue.


Once installed you will be prompted to Reboot your computer (see below). 

Picture showing the reboot option screen of the zotero installer

After you click on Finish, your computer will reboot.

Open your browser & go to the Download page to install the Connector. The download interface 
automatically recognizes your specific browser and operating system, and provides the 
appropriate choice.


image of a page linking the zotero connection for google chrome download.

This plugin allows you to create a bibliography, in-text citations, and footnotes or endnotes from within word processing software. 

Note that Zotero version 5.x automatically installs the plugin for Microsoft Word.

Open Microsoft Word, and click on the Zotero tab to display tools:

image showing Zotero's Microsoft word toolbar plugin.

Using Google Docs? No plugin required. Click here for Zotero support documentation.

Using LibreOffice? Click here for plugin.

You do not need to register your Zotero account but you may want to do this at a later date as there are a
number of advantages including the ability to sync your citations to the Zotero site, allowing you to 
access them from any computer at any time.

Modified 2/25/2021

Zotero is a free Web application developed for Firefox, Chrome, & Safari web browsers that allows you to quickly cite in-text and format references in a multitude of styles (APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, etc.). Zotero allows you to collect, manage, cite, and share references you've collected for your research.

This guide will walk you through modifying the Preferences tabs screens to configure Zotero.

Important: This guide is intended for users who have just installed Zotero for the first time.

If you already have entries loaded into a past Zotero installation, we recommend you backup your Zotero folder before proceeding, and then after completing customizing, copy your old Zotero folder to a new location on either the Desktop or in Documents.

Please connect to the Internet while configuring Zotero.

If you have not yet downloaded and installed Zotero, please see the Library's Installing Zotero guide for directions with screen shots.

Please Skip this step if your Zotero already contains entries!


You need to decide where to save your Zotero files & retrieved articles. We highly recommend saving to either Documents, or to the Desktop (makes it much easier when migrating to a new computer or quickly backing up), so the first step is to create a New folder in that place & name it: Zotero To access the Preferences settings, open Zotero, then click on the Edit menu choice, and select Preferences:

Zotero pereferences page

Advanced tab -- Files and Folders sub-tab

Under Data Directory Location, click on the Choose button and select the newly-created Zotero folder which appears on your Desktop.

Zotero directory selection image


Zotero will add the information to the screen similar to above, but with your username.

You will be prompted that it must re-start Zotero.

Modify OpenURL Custom Resolver:



[either copy & paste, or right-click & Copy link address & paste]

OPENurl for Zotero


On the General tab you may adjust the User Interface Layout, Font size, & Note font size (recommendations below).

A new feature in Version 5.0 is selecting the Layout (red outline below):

Standard Layout displays a selected entry on the right side of the list of items.

Stacked Layout displays a selected entry underneath the list of items.

All boxes are checked by default.

New to version 5.0.36 are changes to indexing PDFs, which is now automatic--no separate installer needed.

Zotero layout options


Only use if you plan on creating an account & using storage on Zotero server for yourself or group work.

Sync is also beneficial if you are using multiple computers (e.g., work & home) to manage sources.

Enter the username & password used when you created account on Zotero web site.

Note that Sync does not replace making regular backups of your local Zotero files, and cannot be used to restore your Zotero files if your hard drive is damaged or requires re-imaging

Image of sync option

PDF Indexing is a feature which allows you to drag-and-drop previously downloaded pdf files into Zotero, and then have it search for metadata on that file & create an entry for you.

As Zotero facilitates creating your own "library" of sources, enabling PDF Indexing will include those sources when searching within Zotero.

Beginning with Zotero version 5.0.36, this screen shows indexing statistics.

This is another area where you should set the Default style you will use. Note that you may always change the default. Under the Default Output Format, click on the drop arrow to change style.

Image of zotero default format preferences


There are over 9,000 citation styles available for Zotero including many styles based on individual journal titles. Zotero only comes configured with the more popular styles but you may add any of the other styles while inside of Zotero.

After clicking on the Cite tab, click on the Styles sub-tab.

Next, locate the style from the list & click on it to select.If you do not see your specific style, click on the Get additional styles... link (see screen shot below) which will open the Zotero Style Repository, and search for your style. Left-click on the style name to select, which will then load that template into Zotero.

Zotero get additional styles button

Citation Options - Real important especially for APA, MLA, & Chicago styles

Check the box next to the label: Include URLs of paper articles in references.

 Zotero include URLs in citation

It is highly recommended using the classic insert citation interface. So on the Word Processors sub-tab, 
check the box next to the label: Use classic Add Citation dialog

image of word processors options in Zotero

Important: You MUST click the OK button to save all changes.

You are now ready to use Zotero.

As with most things, Zotero is not perfect. Always check your citations for accuracy. Zotero will not correct data or capitalized titles for instance. Be sure to check the data for each citation. You can always edit the citations in Zotero.

Ask Us