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Deaf Studies

Mike @ Reference

Professor Mike Strahan is available at Reference during Winter 2020 semester:

Mondays:   12-1

Tuesdays:   3-5

Wednesdays:   3-5

Thursdays:   12-1

Fridays:   3-5

This video provides a brief introduction to access key Deaf Studies NMU Library Resources including APA style tools, and also how to contact Professor Mike Strahan (Library Liaison to Deaf Studies program) for assistance.  

Sage Deaf Studies Encyclopedia (2016)

APA 6th edition reference example for an entry in this encyclopedia (Note: in this encyclopedia, the author name appears at end of entry before references):

Mori, S. (2016). Japan: Deaf community. In G. Gertz & P. Boudreault (Eds.), The Sage Deaf Studies 

       encyclopedia (pp. 528-532). https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483346489

 

APA 7th edition reference example for an entry in this encyclopedia (Note: in this encyclopedia, the author name appears at end of entry before references):

Mori, S. (2016). Japan: Deaf community. In G. Gertz & P. Boudreault (Eds.), The Sage Deaf Studies 

       encyclopedia (pp. 528-532). Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483346489

 

Encyclopedia of Deafness and Hearing Disorders (2004) 1 person at a time

Search Gallaudet Library resource by occupation or name (How-to Video)
Search Library Catalog for books about an individual (How-to Video)
Search Library Catalog for children's books about an individual (How-to Video)
Search OneSearch for articles & books about an individual (How-to Video)
 

 

Searching for biographies by occupation? Check out the Gallaudet U. Library Guide

Follow these steps to find out about historical figures who contributed to the Deaf community

[Using OneSearch]

    Copy the following line:
    life OR autobiography OR biography OR death OR obituary

    Then access OneSearch Advanced Search and paste that line in the first box.

    In the second box, enter the person placing the name within quotation marks, such as 
    "Helen Keller" (Note: capitalization is not necessary).

    See screen shot below:

biography in onesearch

    If the above strategy yields no results or irrelevant results, click on Advanced (near the top) link which will
    return to the search screen, and then you delete quotation marks around the name.
    Next, change the field from "All Fields" to "Title" and hit the enter key. 

    If this change shows too many results, add the following word after the name: Deaf 
    Also if necessary, remove the "biography" line to yield more relevant results.
 

[Using JSTOR]

    Consider searching JSTOR which includes online access to a number of archival Deaf Studies journals.

    Enter the person's name; start with the name within quotation marks, such as "Helen Keller" and also add the 
    word: Deaf
 

[Using Google Scholar / Google Books / Google]

    Finally consider using Google Scholar (please use this link, not go directly, as you will miss out on NMU Library 
    partnership with Google). Besides name, also add the word Deaf in your search.

    Note that Google Scholar also includes links to Google Books (use this link to access advanced search
    screen). However, we recommend also searching separately using the above link, to take advantage of the
    Preview feature.

    When results appear, Google will try to automatically translate, but we advise to re-set to "show original" so that
    you can more easily see which works are written in languages other than English. Then if you want to translate
    works individually, this gives you more flexibility.

 

 

ASL DVDs on Reserve in NMU Library

 

Journals, books, and other resources covering psychology and psychological aspects of related disciplines including: anthropology, business, education, law, linguistics, medicine, nursing, pharmacology, physiology, and sociology. 1805 to present.

Journals, books, and other resources on subjects including nursing, emergency services, nutrition, occupational therapy, physical therapy, optometry, public health, speech-language pathology & audiology, and surgical technology. 1937 to present.

Journal articles covering biomedical research and the clinical sciences including nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, pharmacy, allied health, and pre-clinical sciences. Also good coverage of literature in cellular and molecular biology and biochemistry. Formerly known as MEDLINE. Mid 1960's to present.

Journal articles, books, and other resources across many subjects. Provides a "cited by" feature to indicate other papers containing a source paper as a reference.

LGBT Life contains full text for more than 120 of the most important and historically significant LGBT journals, magazines and regional newspapers, as well as more than 150 full-text monographs/books. The database also includes comprehensive indexing and abstract coverage as well as a specialized LGBT Thesaurus.

 

Club ASL (NMU page)

Club ASL (FB group)

International Deaf and Disability Organizations (used with permission from Gallaudet U. Exec. Dir. Dr. Charles Reilly)

APA Style (6th Edition)

(This APA style guide last revised: 1/11/2020)

The NEW 7th edition (© 2020) APA style Manual was released Oct. 1, 2019, along with their
new official APA style Blog.

The NEW NMU Olson Library APA Style 7th edition guide is now available

Please see tabs indicating "7th ed." for Manual Introduction and Instructional Aids for transitioning to new style as reflected in the Manual.

Examples on this guide reflect the 6th edition, 2nd printing (© 2010) of the Publication ManualAPA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed. (© 2012); and APA Style Blog 6th Edition Archive 

 

NMU will switch to 7th edition beginning January 2020 with the winter semester. However, the 6th edition examples will remain available on this guide through August 2020 in order to accommodate graduate student theses & dissertations.

Note: Enforcement of APA style is up to course instructor or publication editor.

Note that examples below reflect APA's change to DOI format on March 1, 2017.

For one article:

  1. Check the first page of article (usually in smaller print near journal logo, copyright, or near author email address).
  2. If not on article, check database record/abstract (sometimes labeled as DOI). CINAHL began adding DOI's in 2009.
  3. If DOI does not appear on either article or in database, search the Cross/Ref DOI Lookup using article author/title


For list of references:

  1. Create an account at Cross/Ref. After you submit your request, you will receive an e-mail. Please click on the provided link to activate your account.
  2. Next, go to Simple Text Query Form and enter your e-mail address, then copy & paste entire reference list into box. Click submit.


An individual DOI may be verified/searched:
Resolve a DOI name

Do steps in order:

  1. Look for web address on the article.
  2. Type complete journal title in web browser address bar.
  3. Check database record.
  4. Search journal title in Ulrich's (works great for journal title with common words).

NOTES: Journal titles which begin with BMC or other online-only journals often use document numbers instead of issue numbers, as in this example in volume 15: 15:366. However, do not use the document number in your reference; instead, provide the volume number followed by page numbers indicated on PDF. See third example below.

Please verify DOI format with journal author guidelines before submission.

Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)

  • Wilens, T. E., & Biederman, J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 580-588.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776

Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume), more than seven authors

  • Caselli, D., Carraro, F., Castagnola, E., Ziino, O., Frenos, S., Milano, G. M., . . . Aric, M. (2010). Morbidity of pandemic H1N1 influenza in children with cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 55, 226-228. https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22619

Journal Article which provides a volume number and document number instead of an issue number on the article itself (example: 15:366), and each article in the volume usually begins with page number 1.

  • Norris, E., Shelton, N., Dunsmuir, S., Duke-Williams, O., & Stamatakis, E. (2015). Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: A pilot study. BMC Public Health, 15, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1706-5

Journal Article (paginated by issue)

  • Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. https://doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10

Cochrane Database Report retrieved from Cochrane Library

  • Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

Advance online article (published online before print; may or may not include pagination; indicate initial page number or range if available).

  • Jung, T. I., Hoffmann, F., Glaeske, G., & Felsenberg, D. (2009). Disease-specific risk for an osteonecrosis of the jaw under bisphosphonate therapy. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00432-009-0662-9

 

Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)

  • Arakji, R. Y., & Lang, K. R. (2008). Avatar business value analysis: A method for the evaluation of business value creation in virtual commerce. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 9, 207-218. Retrieved from https://www.csulb.edu/journals/jecr

Journal Article (paginated by issue)

  • Williams, J. (2008). The victims of crime. Sociology Review, 17(4), 30-32. Retrieved from https://www.philipallan.co.uk/sociologyreview/index.htm

Journal Article (paginated by issue), more than seven authors

  • Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Al Otaiba, S., Thompson, A., Yen, L., McMaster, K. N., . . . Yang, N. J. (2001). K-PALS: Helping kindergartners with reading readiness: Teachers and researchers in partnerships. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(4), 76-80. Retrieved from https://www.cec.sped.org/content/navigationmenu/publications2/teachingexceptionalchildren

Magazine Article (page numbers appear on article)

  • Bower, B. (2008, Feb. 9). Dawn of the city: Excavations prompt a revolution in thinking about the earliest cities. Science News, 173(6), 90-92. Retrieved from https://www.sciencenewsmagazine.org

Newspaper Article (no page number provided)

  • Heinlein, G. (2007, July 24). Michigan smoking ban takes big step. Detroit News. Retrieved from https://www.detnews.com

Newsletter article, retrieved from publisher web site

Unless newsletter article is paginated, exclude pages numbers.

  • Dowd, N., O'Donnell, P., & Snoek-Brown, J. (2007, Winter). WeLead and academic libraries: A bright future. Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians WAAL Newsletter, 24(1). Retrieved from https://www.wla.lib.wi.us/waal/newsletter/241.html#welead

Provide holding database home or entry page URL. 

Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)

  • Billson, C. J. (1892). The Easter hare. Folklore, 3, 441-466. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Langdon, S. W., & Preble, W. (2008). The relationship between levels of perceived respect and bullying in 5th through 12th graders. Adolescence, 43, 485-503. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com

Article in a journal

  • Darling-Hammond, L., & Falk, B. (1997). Using standards and assessments to support student learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 79(3), 190-199.

Article in a Popular Magazine

  • Caloyianis, N. (1998, September). Greenland sharks. National Geographic, 194(3), 60-71.

Article in a Newspaper (Discontinuous pages)

  • Von Drehle, D. (2000, January 15). Russians unveil new security plan. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A21.

(Informally Published or Self-archived Work, Manual, p. 212) 

Individual web page

Since web pages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, etc. Note that proper names and acronyms are capitalized. Date of retrieval is included because "the source material may change over time" (Manual, p. 192, and apastyle.org).

IMPORTANT NOTE: the web page title is not italicized because APA considers web pages informal publications. If the web page is also available as an online document/report (for example in PDF), please download that report, cite in-text appropriately, and use the online report format instead (click here to jump to those examples).

Web page: Individual person(s) as author(s) (note capitalization of proper names, & when persons are authors you must include name of website)

  • Lewis, O., & Redish, L. (2011). Native American tribes of Wisconsin. Retrieved April 19, 2012, from the Native Languages of the Americas website: http://www.native-languages.org/wisconsin.htm

Web page: Group of people as authors: Mayo Clinic Staff (if citing more than 1 section, use "Print" URL)

  • Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved October 1, 2014, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gestational-diabetes/basics/definition/con-20014854?p=1

Web page: Organization as author, shows update year

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Diabetes & pregnancy. Retrieved October 1, 2014, fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/Features/DiabetesPregnancy/

Web page: Organization as author, no update year (note capitalization of proper names)

  • Milwaukee Public Museum. (n.d.). Stockbridge-Munsee history. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-158.html

Note regarding citing an entire web site source

When discussing an entire web site (as opposed to a specific page on the web site), an entry does not appear in the reference list, but is cited within text as shown in the following sample sentence:
The International Council of Museums web site provides many links to museums, codes of ethics, and the museum profession (http://www.icom.org/).

Photographs, drawings, etc. copied or adapted from a Web Page

Notes: APA Manual (p. 192) states: "Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time." Since web page content often changes, provide the date of retrieval. Also, if you must split the URL between two lines, do so before a slash or a dash, but do not split https:// 

Following illustration title, insert type of medium in square brackets. Illustration types include diagram, photograph, painting, drawing, bronze sculpture, etc.

  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2012). Dermal absorption [Diagram]. Retrieved March 11, 2013, from https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/skin

If illustration does not have a name/title, insert description including type of medium in square brackets following year. This example does not have a publication date.

  • Florida Hospital. (n.d.). [Untitled photograph of a woman.] Retrieved March 11, 2013, from https://www.changeyourlifechallenge.org/news/hospital-enhances-rehab-program-with-new-experia
    -equipment-for-vitalstim-therapy
Books & Reports, retrieved online source

Electronic version of print book, retrieved from STAT!Ref (Use same URL for all STAT!Ref entries)

  • Nieswiadomy, R. M. (2008). Foundations of nursing research (5th ed.) [STAT!Ref version]. Retrieved from http://online.statref.com

Electronic version of print book, retrieved from EBSCO eBook Collection (Use same URL for all EBSCO entries)

  • Vogel, C. G. (1999). Legends of landforms: Native American lore and the geology of the land. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com

Electronic version of print book, retrieved from ProQuest Ebook Central / Academic Complete (use same URL for all entries)

  • Chandler, C. K. (2011). Animal assisted therapy in counseling. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com

Electronic version of print book, freely available, organization as author

  • American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Retrieved fromhttps://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

Electronic version of print book, freely available through National Academies Press (some indexed in PubMed), organization as author (DOI assigned)

  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2013). Human genome editing: Science, ethics, and governance.http://doi.org/10.17226/24623

Electronic version of print book, retrieved from SpringerLink (DOI assigned)

  • Valencia, C. A., Pervaiz, M. A., Husami, A., Qian, Y., & Zhang, K. (2013). Next generation sequencing technologies in medical genetics. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9032-6

Electronic book - direct link unavailable or URL leads to information on how to obtain the item.
Note use of "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from"

  • Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2007). Diversity in early care and education: Honoring differences. Available from http://mhprofessional.com/product.php?isbn=007722289X

Electronic version of book chapter from an edited book

  • Symonds, P. M. (1958). Human drives. In C. L. Stacey & M. DeMartino (Eds.), Understanding human motivation (pp. 11-22). https://doi.org/10.1037/11305-002

Report/Document available on the web, authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number

  • Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality website: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb17.jsp

Report/Document available on the web, no author identified, no publication date (provide title first)

  • Elementary school math instruction questionnaire results. Most significantly improved schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sharingsuccess.org/code/highperf/2002-03/es_math/msi/index.htm

Report/Document available on the web, authored by a nongovernmental organization, no publication date

  • Accreditation Commission for Programs in Hospitality Administration. (n.d.). Handbook of accreditation. Retrieved from http://www.acpha-cahm.org/forms/acpha/acphahandbook04.pdf

Report/Document from institutional archive or university department web site

  • Trapp, Y. U. (2005). Multiple intelligences: The learning process in our students. Retrieved from Yale University, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute website: http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2001/6/01.06.10.x.html
Books, retrieved print source

Book, no author or editor

  • Place title in the author's position; alphabetize on reference list by the first significant word in the title; cite in text using a few words of the title, or the whole title if it is short, in place of the author's name.

Nursing 2016 drug handbook (36th ed.). (2016). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.


Book, one author

  • McKibben, B. (1992). The age of missing information. New York, NY: Random House.

Book, multiple authors

  • Larson, G. W., Ellis, D. C., & Rivers, P. C. (1984). Essentials of chemical dependency counseling. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Edited book (editor in place of author)

  • Inness, S. A. (Ed.). (1998). Delinquents and debutantes: Twentieth-century American girls' cultures. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Book, subsequent edition (2nd, 3rd, etc.)

  • Stanfield, P., Cross, N., & Hui, Y. H. (2012). Introduction to the health professions (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Article or chapter in a book where each chapter is written by a Contributor, and book has authors (not editors), subsequent edition

  • Landis, C. A., & Heitkemper, M. M. (2011). Sleep and sleep disorders. In S. L. Lewis, S. R. Dirksen, M. M. Heitkemper, L. Bucher, & I. M. Camera, Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (8th ed., pp. 112-125). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Article or chapter a book where each chapter is written by author(s), and publisher is book author (not editor), subsequent edition

  • Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The five practices of exemplary leadership. In Jossey-Bass, The Jossey-Bass reader on educational leadership (2nd ed., rev. ed., pp. 63-72). San Francisco, CA: Author.

Report from a private organization (author & publisher same)

  • National League for Nursing. (1990). Self-study report for community health organizations (Pub. No. 21-2329). New York, NY: Author.

Article or chapter in an edited book (editors indicated)

  • Hartley, J. T., Harker, J. O., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved online, no entry author

  • Boss brass. (2009). In H. Kallmann & G. Potvin (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=U1ARTU0000367

Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved from online, entry has author name

  • Gersten, T. (2014). Hemophilia B. In National Library of Medicine, A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000539.htm

Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved from STAT!Ref online, no entry author

  • Vernix caseosa. (2009). In D. Venes (Ed.), Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary (21st ed.) [STAT!Ref version]. Retrieved from http://online.statref.com

Entry in an Encyclopedia, electronic version of print book, entry author, multi-volume, direct link unavailable, retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library

  • Hanegraaff, W. (2005). New Age movement. In L. Jones (Ed.), Encyclopedia of religion (2nd ed., Vol. 10, pp. 6495-6500). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps

Definition Entry in a general Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no date, no editor. Note: When no entry author is provided, move name of word into author position.

  • Diabetes. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diabetes

Entry in a Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no editor

  • Terrorism. (2009). In DOD dictionary of military and associated terms. Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/data/t/7591.html

Entry in an encyclopedia
This includes both general and specialized encyclopedias. If an entry does not have a byline, begin the reference with the entry title and publication date.
 

  • Moore, C. (1991). Mass Spectrometry. In Encyclopedia of chemical technology (4th ed.) (Vol. 15, pp. 1071-1094). New York, NY: Wiley.

Entry in Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY)
Title of the review and authorship appears in italics at the beginning of the review narrative (example provided below). Also, note that many entries published in MMY contain more than one review. Title of the test is capitalized.

Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments by NANCY L. ALLEN, Research Scientist, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ:

Allen, N. L. (1992). Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments. In J. J. Kramer & J. C. Conoley (Eds.), The eleventh mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute, University of Nebraska Press.

Working Paper, from electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, p. 206)

  • Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). Adaptability to online learning: Differences across types of students and academic subject areas (CCRC Working Paper No. 54). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Dissertations/Theses: Doctoral Dissertations, from electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, pp. 207-208)

  • Simon, C. E. (1995). Information retrieval techniques: The differences in cognitive strategies and search behaviors among graduate students in an academic library (Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Speeches/Meeting Papers - Published in proceedings, limited circulation, retrieved from ERIC database (Manual, p. 192 & p. 207)

  • Lucas, L. A. (1998). Issues in the creation and coordination of an academic computing help desk. Association of Small Computer Users in Education: Proceedings of the ASCUE Summer Conference, North Myrtle Beach, SC (pp. 87-92). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

ERIC Digest - Informally published or self-archived work, from ERIC (Manual, p. 212)

  • Schuetz, P. (2000). Successful collaborations between high schools and community colleges. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Dissertations/Theses: Master's Theses - Unpublished, from an electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, pp. 207-208)

  • Lopez, J. (2005). Characteristics of selected multilingual education programs from around the world: A review of the literature (Unpublished master's thesis). Dominican University of California, Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Report - from ERIC (Manual, p. 212)

  • Brewster, C., & Railsback, J. (2002). Full-day kindergarten: Exploring an option for extended learning. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Speeches/Meeting Papers - Unpublished presentation retrieved from ERIC (Manual, p. 206)

  • Shaw, C. L. M. (1997, November). Customer satisfaction: Communication training and the help-desk hot-line. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago, IL. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Book

  • Barker, C. L., & Searchwell, C. J. (2000). Writing year-end teacher improvement plans--right now!! The principal's time-saving reference guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. (ED450448)

Report - available from ERIC (microfiche-only, but without report number)

  • Morgan, D. R. (1982). Desegregating public schools: A handbook for local officials. Norman, OK: Bureau of Government Research, University of Oklahoma. (ED215005)

Speeches/Meeting Papers - Unpublished presentation (microfiche-only)

  • Kondrick, L. C., & Franklin, K. K. (2003). A conceptual model for a task analysis of methods in action research design. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Biloxi, MS. (ED482468)

Master's thesis from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database (written by NMU graduate student)

  • Smith-LaBrash, S. (2010). Influence of learning styles, gender, self-rated computer experience, and age on preference for computer-assisted learning versus traditional learning (Master's thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 1483122)

Doctoral Dissertation from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database

  • Richardson, L. S. (2010). Elementary teachers' perceptions of grade retention (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 3416301)

Doctoral Dissertation from a commercial database

  • Jackson, S. L. (2007). Program effectiveness of job readiness training: An analysis and evaluation of selected programs in St. Louis, Missouri (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ABI/INFORM database. (UMI No. 3241781)

Doctoral Dissertation from an institutional database (sometimes referred to as a Commons or has ETD in url)

  • Naylor, S. M. (2007). Understanding graduate student constructs for finding meaning in the advising experience: A qualitative case study of incoming master's of social work students (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://libres.uncg.edu/edocs/etd/

Master's Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation using persistent link/identifier or handle (sometimes called uri); the source address "handle.net" usually appears as part of the URL/URI.

  • Bartel, T. M. C. (2005). Factors associated with attachment in international adoption (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved fromhttp://hdl.handle.net/2097/131

Unpublished master's thesis (not indexed in Dissertation Express or Dissertation Abstracts/Master's Abstracts)

  • Paulosky, K. A. (1997). Knowledge and attitudes of pain and activities of nurse administrators (Unpublished master's thesis). Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI.

Note: According to Anne Gasque (Manual senior editor), since Dissertation Abstracts International is unavailable through NMU, researchers may substitute Dissertation Express information for DAI entry information.

Master's thesis indexed in Dissertation Express

  • McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's thesis). Available from Dissertation Express database. (UMI No. 1434728)

Doctoral dissertation indexed in Dissertation Express

  • Met, L. (1976). A study of the development and validation of a high school leadership training program: Evaluation of the student leadership program (Doctoral dissertation). Available from Dissertation Express database. (UMI No. 7703303)

Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI).

  • Gould, J. B. (1999). Symbolic speech: Legal mobilization and the rise of collegiate hate speech codes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(02), 533A.

Master's Thesis from a university outside of the United States, does not appear in Dissertation Express.

  • Hansen, C. F. (2007). Active support for instructors and students in an online learning environment (Master's thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada).

Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is included in name of university, then do not repeat the name (APA Manual, 6.30). Also, does not appear in Dissertation Express.

  • Ni, E. A.-L. (2012). New paradigms for active learning (Doctoral thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada).

Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is not included in name of university (include province postal abbreviation). Also, does not appear in Dissertation Express.

  • Watts, E. (1999). The freshman year experience, 1962-1990: An experiment in humanistic higher education (Doctoral thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada).

YouTube-type Video Blog Post

  • Goyen, A. (2007, February 22). Downtown Marquette dog sled races [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gW3CNCGGgTY

 

  • University of Chicago. (2007, December 12). European cartographers and the Ottoman world, 1500--1750 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xax5d4IKqrQ

Video Webcast from Television Series Single Episode

  • ABC News (Producer). (2007, September 21). Dying professor's lecture of a lifetime [Video webcast] [Television series episode]. In Good Morning America. Person of the Week. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/PersonOfWeek/Story?id=3633945&page=1

Audio Podcast

  • Charney, T. (Producer). (2007). Ashes to hope: Overcoming the Detroit riots. U.P. family still struggles to deal with pressure of '67 riot [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.michiganradio.org

Film / Movie / Motion Picture

  • Chrisman, S. (Producer & Director). (2003). Lumberjack life U.P. days of yore [DVD]. Available from http://wnmutv.nmu.edu/video_sales.php

U.S. Government executive document, authored by agency, with report number. Per the 9/25/18 APA Style blog post, APA recommends providing the specific government agency name for author, not the complete long form showing hierarchy of departments (although both forms are now correct).
Note that the agency publication number may appear on the web document or in the library catalog.

  • Environmental Protection Agency. (1999). Smog-Who does it hurt? What you need to know about ozone and your health (EPA Publication No. EPA-452/K-99-001). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health/smog.pdf

Government Report/Document, authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number.

  • Werner, C. A. (2011). The older population: 2010 (2010 Census Briefs, No. C2010BR-09). Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website: http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-09.pdf
     
  • Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality website: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb17.jsp

Government report, no document number

  • Food and Drug Administration. (2017). Food facts: Food and water safety during power outages and floods. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/ucm076962.pdf

Note: For government documents which do not have a personal author, APA recommends per the 9/25/18 APA Style blog post providing the specific government agency name for author, not the complete long form showing hierarchy of departments (although both forms are now correct). Also, not all U.S. government documents are published by GPO. As is the case for the second example below, when the publisher is the authoring agency, write: Author in the publisher's field.

U.S. Government executive document
Note that the agency publication number may appear on the document or in the online catalog.

  • Lindeman, D. A. (1984). Alzheimer's disease handbook (DHHS Publication No. OHDS 84-20813). Washington, DC: Government Publishing Office.

 

  • National Park Service. (2004). Pictured rocks national lakeshore: Final general management plan, wilderness study, environmental impact statement. Washington, DC: Author.

Michigan Government executive document
Michigan Department of Community Health. (2003). Michigan dementia plan summary: Reducing the burden of dementia in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Author.

For legislative and legal materials, APA uses the conventional legal citation format found in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. Guidelines and additional examples appear in the Manual on pp. 216-224.

Unenacted bills - Federal - retrieved through Thomas.gov
Unless you wish to provide parallel traditional and Internet references, it is not necessary to indicate where you retrieved bill text.

For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date.

Josh Miller HEARTS Act, S. 1197, 111th Cong. (2009).


Unenacted bills - State - retrieved through mi.gov
H.B. 4379, 95th Leg., Reg. Sess. (Mich. 2010).

Court Decision with record number identifier (Note source abbreviations - WestLaw: WL & Lexis-Nexis: LEXIS)
Note: If screen numbers are assigned, precede with an asterisk.
Hornback v. U.S., No. 03-5099, 2004 WL 68510, at *1 (C. A. Fed. Jan. 13, 2004).

U.S. Government Congressional document
For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date.

  • Charter schools: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, 105th Cong. 1 (1998).

Court decision (note that no part of entry is italicized)
United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974).

When course materials such as a syllabus, lecture notes, or presentation slides (e.g., PowerPoint) are available only from the course instructor, a classmate, or accessible only through course management systems such as NMU EduCat, Moodle, or Blackboard, then such content is considered Personal Communications (APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 2nd ed., p. 31).\

Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:

L. Flood (personal communication, April 7, 2014) 

(N. Gasiewicz, personal communication, March 26, 2014).

Paper in proceedings published regularly

  • Rissman, J., Greely, H. T., & Wagner, A. D. (2010). Detecting individual memories through the neural decoding of memory states and past experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107, 9849-9854. doi:10.1073/pnas.1001028107

Paper in proceedings published regularly, more than seven authors

  • Brem, S., Bach, S., Kucian, K., Guttorm, T. K., Martin, E., Lyytinen, H., ... Richardson, U. (2010). Brain sensitivity to print emerges when children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107, 7939-7944. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904402107

Conference presentation slides

  • Clumpner, K. E. (2007, April). Interdisciplinary blog for liaisons [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians, Wisconsin Dells, WI. Retrieved from http://www.wla.lib.wi.us/waal/conferences/2007/postconference/clumpner.pdf

Conference panel abstract

  • Freier, M., Bennett, T., & Riley, A. C. (2009, March). Gender, generation, and toxicity: The implications for academic libraries of gender and generational attitudes toward competition and workplace behavior. Panel presented at the ACRL 14th National Conference, Seattle, WA. Abstract retrieved from http://www.eshow2000.com/acrl/2009/e_pop_profiles.cfm?session=1&session_id=112539&class_id=113811

Published Proceedings
Capitalize the name of the symposium.

  • Barlow, D. H., Chorpita, B. F., & Turovsky, J. (1996). Fear, panic, anxiety, and disorders of emotion. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 43. Perspectives on Anxiety, Panic, and Fear (pp. 251-328). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Proceedings published regularly (format similar to periodicals)

  • Wassenaar, L. I., & Hobson, K. A. (1998). Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, 15436-15439.

Poster presented at conference

  • Raspe, P. D. (1991, April). Relationship among given names in the Scilly Isles. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Milwaukee, WI.

The APA Publication Manual (6th ed., p. 179) indicates that personal communications include letters, memos, telephone conversations, some electronic communications (e.g., e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), etc.

Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:

D. Walch (personal communication, January 19, 2007). 

(L. Brothen, personal communication, June 6, 2004).

Although referencing the full-text of an article is preferred, abstracts may be used as sources (Manual, p. 202).

Abstract found in database - Abstract as secondary source

  • Johnson, P. D. (1998). Rural stroke caregivers: A qualitative study of the positive and negative response to the caregiver role. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 5(3), 51-68. Abstract retrieved from CINAHL database. (Accession No. 1999045958)

Abstract found on publisher web site - Abstract as original source

  • Wang, J. L., Lesage, A., Schmitz, N., & Drapeau, A. (2008). The relationship between work stress and mental disorders in men and women: Findings from a population-based study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 42-47. Abstract retrieved from http://jech.bmj.com

Message posted to a Blog

  • Jacobson, J. (2009, November 8). Historic health reform bill passes but at a price: Women's groups have mixed reaction [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.rhrealitycheck.org/blog/2009/11/08/historic-health-reform-bill-passes-but-at-a-price-womens-groups-have-mixed-reaction

Message posted to an electronic mailing list (archived)

  • SaFeddern, T. (2004, May 10). Summary: EBN (nursing) resources [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from Nursing & Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association (NAHRS), http://listserv.kent.edu/cgi-bin/wa.exe?LIST=NAHRS

Graphic representation of data derived from a data set / data bank
When a figure (graph, map, chart, etc.) or table is generated/created from a data set/data bank available online, use the following to reference the data set. Since data sets/banks are frequently updated, provide the URL of the initial web page used to generate the graphic. Note to also properly caption & cite the resulting graphic or table. See examples of how to caption & cite tables & figures from another source.
 

  • National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2007). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Trends Data [Data file]. Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/index.html

APA in-text citation examples

Reproduced with permission from The Basics of APA Style® tutorial https://apastyle.apa.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial. Copyright © 2010 American Psychological Association.

Note: prepared by Library faculty & staff

Basic Formatting

How-to video: APA Style - Customizing Microsoft Word settings
Shows how to customize Microsoft Word to become more APA style friendly. 

How-to APA style Video: Create Running Head & insert page numbers

Basic Explanation of APA Reference Components

** forthcoming **

APA Style: How-to videos on formatting references

Professor Strahan introduces the NMU Library APA Style guide (4:25)
Explores various parts of the new Library APA guide, including overview of resources available in each tab.

Reference for a Journal Article Assigned a DOI (digital object identifier)
How to format reference for a journal article assigned a DOI. 

Reference for a Web page
How to format reference for a web page authored by an organization (U.S. government agency).

Reference for an Authored Book
How to format a reference for a book written by authors, not editors.

How-to video: APA Style of a Sample Paper narrative
Shows how to format various types of in-text citations for APA style, & formatting numbers & percent. Includes single, multiple, & when to use et al.

How-to video: APA Style of a Sample Paper references
Explains how to format the following types of references in a sample paper according to APA Style: print book, web page, journal article assigned DOI, authored chapter in an edited book, and an article retrieved online but not assigned a DOI.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition)
How to Format APA-type Content in Presentation Slides 


Note: The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. 2010 does not specifically address formatting style content in presentation slides. 
The following recommendations are based on information provided in Chapter 5 of the Manual, the APA Style Blog, and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed., 2012. Since space is limited on slides, use single line spacing in all cases (including references).


INSERTING & CAPTIONING ILLUSTRATIONS (images, pictures, etc.) retrieved from a web page

After inserting the illustration on the slide, you must caption it underneath, using single-spaced lines. The standard format is:

  • Label each figure in order, beginning with number 1. The first image is labeled Figure 1.
  • Using your own words, briefly describe what the figure shows.
  • Reprinted (retained original appearance) / Adapted (modified appearance) statement.
  • In-text citation. Note that format is different from References. The components: title/label of image, author/creator of image, publication year. 

Example of a Diagram with no modification to appearance, with a title/label, author/creator is an organization, and publication/copyright date provided:

Image of hair follicles demonstrating a properly written cpation.

Figure 1. Chemicals are absorbed in the skin by passing through hair follicles. Reprinted from 
Dermal Absorption, by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2012.


Example of Photograph with no modification to appearance, without a title/label, author/creator is an organization, and no publication/copyright date provided:

image with no labels etc

Figure 2. Connections of non-invasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation for treating dysphagia. Reprinted from [Untitled photograph of a woman], by Florida Hospital, n.d.


At the end of your presentation, you must list your references. Here are the references to the above images. 
Although APA style requires double-spacing of reference entries, it is suggested to instead use single spacing on slides. Arrange entries alphabetically, and retain the hanging indent format in order to differentiate references. 
Yes, you may copy & paste references from Zotero to presentation slides--contact a librarian for assistance. 

[ Notes: APA Manual (p. 192) states: "Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change 
over time." Since web page content often changes, provide the date of retrieval. Also, if you must split the URL between two lines, do so before a slash.]

References

Florida Hospital. (n.d.). [Untitled photograph of a woman.] Retrieved March 11, 2013, from
         http://www.changeyourlifechallenge.org/news
        /hospital-enhances-rehab-program-with-new-experia-equipment-for-vitalstim-therapy/

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2012). Dermal absorption [Diagram]. Retrieved March 11, 
        2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/skin/

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(6th Edition)
How to Caption Tables & Figures from Another Source 


TABLE EXAMPLES

Table components consist of Table & number, title in italics, the table of information, and the caption. The caption begins with the word Note in italics, followed by descriptive note(s) for the table, then the source of the table (if not created by the author). The caption appears immediately underneath the table proper. Everything is double-spaced.

Material adapted from a journal article. Note format is different from References.

Note. Descriptive note. Adapted [or Reprinted] from “Title of Article,” by F. M. Author and C. D. Author, year, Title of

Journal, volume, p. xx. Copyright year by the Name of Copyright Holder. Adapted with permission.

Example:

Note. Values are percentages. Reprinted from “Hope and Social Support as Resilience Factors Against Psychological

Distress of Mothers Who Care for Children With Chronic Physical Conditions,” by T. V. Horton and J. L. Wallander,

2001, Rehabilitation Psychology, 46, p. 387. Copyright 2001 by the Educational Publishing Foundation. Adapted with

permission.

------------------------

Material adapted from a book. Note format is different from References.

Note. Descriptive note. Adapted from Title of Book (p. xx), by F. M. Author and C. D. Author, year, Place

of Publication: Publisher. Copyright year by the Name of Copyright Holder. Adapted [or Reprinted] with permission.

Example:
Note. Examples of maternal medical problems. Adapted from Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention (p. 149)by R. E. Behrman and A. S. Butler (Eds.), 2007, Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. Adapted with permission.



FIGURE EXAMPLE

APA defines a figure as any illustration that is not a table. Figures do not have separate titles but may include a legend (if applicable). The caption begins with an explanation (which also serves as the title), followed by source of figure (if not created by the author). The caption appears immediately underneath the figure and begins with the word Figure and figure number in italics. Everything is double-spaced.

Material adapted from a journal article. Note format is different from References.

Figure #. Description/Note. Adapted from “Title of Article,” by F. M. Author and C. D. Author, year,

Title of Journal, volume, p. xx. Copyright year by the Name of Copyright Holder. Adapted [or Reprinted] with

permission.

Example:

Figure 3. Model of hypothesized relationships. Adapted from “Hope and Social Support as Resilience Factors

Against Psychological Distress of Mothers Who Care for Children With Chronic Physical Conditions,” by T. V. Horton

and J. L. Wallander, 2001, Rehabilitation Psychology, 46, p. 386. Copyright 2001 by the Educational Publishing

Foundation. Adapted with permission.

Unless otherwise specified, page numbers indicated in square brackets refer to the 6th edition, 2nd printing or later (© 2010) of the Publication ManualAPA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed. (© 2012); and APA Style Blog ( http://blog.apastyle.org/). Latest changes reflected in NMU Olson Library APA Style Guide.

APA revised the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) format on March 1, 2017. Example: https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776

APA Style is fluid (regularly changing), and some referencing formats have changed since the Manual was published in July 2009.

Therefore, it is highly recommended students consult the NMU Olson Library APA Reference Style Guide for examples, especially how to reference articles & books assigned a DOI, articles retrieved online which were not assigned a DOI, and how to reference online books & reports. However, the library's APA guide and checklists are not replacements for the entire Manual.

When preparing a product, it is highly recommended using MS Word style "No Spacing," because "Normal" style inserts extra space between paragraphs & references. 
If project is already written, change the content by highlighting narrative & references, click on Line and Paragraph Spacing, and then select: Remove Space After Paragraph.

Layout

  • Times New Roman 12-point font; everything double-spaced.

Organization & Miscellaneous

  • Include page numbers & running head as specified in DNP guidelines. Some Thesis & NMU Nursing DNP Scholarly Project guidelines specify No Running Head, and have different location for page numbers.
  • (Graduate works only) Chapters labeled according to DNP Handbook using words, not numerals.
  • In narrative, only two spaces (not one, not three) following end of sentence punctuation. Use Ctrl-H to find & replace these occurrences.
  • IRB is Institutional Review Board
  • If two sets of words are hyphenated but split, include the hyphen for both. Correct: pre- and post-test Incorrect: pre and post-test
  • Also, be consistent using word forms. If you introduce pre-test using a hyphen, keep that form throughout manuscript; do not make it one word: pretest.
  • Refer to decades without apostrophe. Correct: 2000s Incorrect: 1990's.
  • APA does not use superscripting for numbers such as 4th or 3rd. (Change Options - Proofing - Autocorrect settings in Word).

Inclusion of copyrighted material

  • Inclusion in whole (reprint) or in part (adaptation) of previously published copyrighted material requires written permission from the copyright holder[APA Manual, pp. 173-174] [DNP Scholarly Project Guidelines, p. 12]
    If original source is journal article, book, or report, contact publisher. If an instrument (survey, etc.), first contact creator directly.
    If material is from a web page, it is still protected by copyright, & students must secure permission before using. Place copies of permission correspondence (e-mail, letters) in an Appendix. 
    If permission is not received, copyrighted material must not be included in the Scholarly Project.
Mechanics of Style

Chapter 4 - Mechanics of Style (Capitalization, Spelling, & Numbers) [pp. 87-124]

Capitalization

  • Capitalize all proper nouns and brand names of products. However, do not capitalize generic names. 
    [p. 102] Example: capitalize Tylenol, but not acetaminophen.
  • Academic course names. Spell out and capitalize specific course.
    Example: Nursing 311 not NU 311. [p. 102]
  • Do not capitalize or italicize names of laws, theories, models, statistical procedures, or hypotheses. However, capitalize personal name portion of these. [pp. 102-103] 
    Example: Roy's adaptation theory
  • Capitalize complete titles of tests, inventories, or scales. However, do not capitalize the word test or scale if it refers to subscales of tests. [p. 103]
  • First word of genera, species, and varieties are always capitalized. All are italicized. [p. 105]

Numbers [pp. 111-114]

  • Verify correct form of all numeric values. Include a comma for thousands (except dosage, temperature, years).
  • Generally, values less than 10 are spelled out, and values 10 or greater use numbers. 
    Examples: five nurses   75 patients
    However, when beginning a sentence with a number, always spell out the number as word(s). Example: One nurse supervises 15 RNs   not: 1 nurse supervises
    APA recommends not beginning a sentence with a number, and instead rewrite the sentence.

Exceptions to these general rules for numbers

  • Range of time should be numbers, as in: 9 to 12 months or 9-12 months
  • For time of day, do not spell out in words, but rather use standard conventions: 
    12:00 p.m. or at 3:00 p.m. [p. 112]
  • Use words for approximates, as in: about six weeks. [p. 112]
  • Temperature: use numerals and scale abbreviation. [p. 114] 
    Example: 98.6 °F
  • Percent: When percent sign is preceded by a number, use symbol with no space. [p. 118] 
    Correct: 12%  5% 
    Incorrect: 12 percent  5 percent   five percent   five%
  • However, when discussing percentage (no value) or percentile, spell out word.

Statistical and Mathematical Copy [pp. 116-123] Note use of italics & spacing

  • Writing p values: p < .001 or p = .005
  • Number of subjects in total sample N = vs. n = for portion of sample

Chapter 4 - Mechanics of Style (Capitalization, Spelling, & Numbers) [pp. 87-124]

Capitalization

  • Capitalize all proper nouns and brand names of products. However, do not capitalize generic names. 
    [p. 102] Example: capitalize Tylenol, but not acetaminophen.
  • Academic course names. Spell out and capitalize specific course.
    Example: Nursing 311 not NU 311. [p. 102]
  • Do not capitalize or italicize names of laws, theories, models, statistical procedures, or hypotheses. However, capitalize personal name portion of these. [pp. 102-103] 
    Example: Roy's adaptation theory
  • Capitalize complete titles of tests, inventories, or scales. However, do not capitalize the word test or scale if it refers to subscales of tests. [p. 103]
  • First word of genera, species, and varieties are always capitalized. All are italicized. [p. 105]

Numbers [pp. 111-114]

  • Verify correct form of all numeric values. Include a comma for thousands (except dosage, temperature, years).
  • Generally, values less than 10 are spelled out, and values 10 or greater use numbers. 
    Examples: five nurses   75 patients
    However, when beginning a sentence with a number, always spell out the number as word(s). Example: One nurse supervises 15 RNs   not: 1 nurse supervises
    APA recommends not beginning a sentence with a number, and instead rewrite the sentence.

Exceptions to these general rules for numbers

  • Range of time should be numbers, as in: 9 to 12 months or 9-12 months
  • For time of day, do not spell out in words, but rather use standard conventions: 
    12:00 p.m. or at 3:00 p.m. [p. 112]
  • Use words for approximates, as in: about six weeks. [p. 112]
  • Temperature: use numerals and scale abbreviation. [p. 114] 
    Example: 98.6 °F
  • Percent: When percent sign is preceded by a number, use symbol with no space. [p. 118] 
    Correct: 12%  5% 
    Incorrect: 12 percent  5 percent   five percent   five%
  • However, when discussing percentage (no value) or percentile, spell out word.

Statistical and Mathematical Copy [pp. 116-123] Note use of italics & spacing

  • Writing p values: p < .001 or p = .005
  • Number of subjects in total sample N = vs. n = for portion of sample

Chapter 5 - Displaying Results (Tables & Figures) [125-167]

  • APA uses the following terminology: 
    Tables (row-column structure) 
    Figures (graphs, charts, maps, photos, illustrations-basically any illustration which is not a table) [p. 125]
  • Tables & figures are numbered using Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the work. 
    [p. 127]
  • Must label all tables & figures, even those in Appendices
  • Must caption all tables & figures.
  • The label for a table is written above. Example: Table 1 then double-space between table number and table title.
  • Insert table caption below table, beginning with: Note. 
    If information is from another source, include citation in caption according to copyright holder's directions; if none provided, use examples in Chapter 5 and as indicated on this library guide.
  • Figure number is placed underneath as part of the caption, and is italicized: Figure 2.
  • When student creates table/figure using data/info from their own research, caption needs to include only a brief description and any notes.
  • When referring to either in the narrative, capitalize the word, don't italicize, and never abbreviate: 
    Table 1  (Figure 3)

Chapter 6 - Crediting Sources (citing in-text & formatting names in references) [169-192]

Examples of how to format in-text citations appear in Table 6.1, p. 177, the In-text Citations tab of the APA guide, and here on the Library's web site.

  • In-text citation only works listed in the References. 
    Exception: When referring to an entire web site in the narrative, provide the source URL of the site in parentheses, and do not include in References. 
    Example: The American Nurses Association website (http://www.nursingworld.org/) provides a wealth of information to the newly-licensed RN.
  • Use Ctrl-F to find all occurrences & formatting of an author’s work(s) in-text & on the References list.
  • Spelling accuracy of author last names is critical.
  • Make sure to cite complete individual person author last name(s) in-text; that is, no abbreviations or shortening.
  • When citing groups/organizations the first time, spell out name and then indicate its acronym. In order to avoid confusion, recommend using well-known acronym for that group/organization. 
    Example: Here is a parenthetical first citation to a 2010 WHO report: (World Health Organization [WHO], 2010). Subsequent in-text cites to this work would then appear as: (WHO, 2010).
  • When citing more than one author parenthetically, place ampersand before last author, not the word and. Example: (Smith & Jones, 2011).

  • et al. : format inside parentheses is: (first author et al., year) Outside parentheses: first author et al. (year)
  • Applying et al. : If not using Zotero or Endnote (which tracks & automatically formats et al.), must keep track of first set of authors then subsequent use of et al. Do not revert to listing all of the authors later in the manuscript.
  • Citing six or more authors? Use: first author et al. and the year for first & subsequent cites. However, if two references shortened are the same form, include in-order first author and additional authors as necessary, followed by a comma and et al. to distinguish the works. [p. 175]

  • Citing more than one source within parentheses? Arrange alphabetical in order as they appear on the References list, and separate entries by a semi-colon. 
    Correct: (Jones & Smith, 2017; Marks & Fitz, 2012) Also, do not insert the word and or & sign after the semicolon. 
    Incorrect: (Smith & Marks, 2012; & Taylor & Fish, 2014)

  • More than one work with same first author surname (but are different people) [p. 176, Section 6.14] 
    Insert in-text all of the first author initials including capitalization and periods. 
    Example: Two works authored as follows: Barley, Zoe A. published in 2009; and Barley, Maurice Willmore published in 1972. 
    When citing these in-text, write: 
    We reviewed a number of studies authored by Z. A. Barley (2009) and M. W. Barley (1972).
  • More than one work with same first author surname (but are different people) & will use et al.(same first author/year & et al.). Insert in-text all of the first author initials.
  • When referring to individuals (not authors) in-text, omit titles (Dr.) and degrees (PhD). [p. 23]. Also provide in-text citation.

  • Secondary sources. As stated in the Manual: "Use secondary sources sparingly ... when the original work is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not available in English." [p. 178] 
    Generally, avoid using secondary sources. Instead, well before project deadline, try to acquire the original source cited in the secondary source. If the library does not own the original work, request through interlibrary loan (articles only take a few days, and books a little longer). 
    When writing a master's or doctoral thesis/dissertation/scholarly project, it is recommended students should not be citing secondary sources and relying upon secondary interpretations.
  • Strongly recommend referencing & citing original source of theories, not rely upon secondary sources. Examples include journal articles, books, or web page authored by theorist. Also acceptable would be reprint of author's theory in a theory book.
  • When referring to a specific figure in-text, the word is capitalized. Example: Figure 1
  • Seriation (creating lists) see Manual pp. 63-64. If including within a paragraph, APA uses letters, not numbers.
  • Direct quotation fewer than 40 words (part of sentence). Period is placed at the end of the sentence, not at the end of the quote. [Manual, p. 171]
  • Direct quotation 40 or more words (Block quotation). Period is placed at the end of the quotation itself. In-text citation follows but does not end in a period. [Manual, p. 171]
  • Emphasizing terms. Use italics the first time, and normal text thereafter. Do not use quotation marks unless indicating it as a direct quote, and then of course citing the source.
  • Abbreviations. Provide only when expected to use abbreviation more than once.
  • Avoid making et al. a possessive.
  • When citing & referencing names of software (such as SPSS, etc.), see p. 210 for rules.
  • All direct quotes must include page number, or if web page... section heading and paragraph number.

Chapter 7 - Reference Examples [pp. 193-215]

Law/legal sources: Manual, Appendix 7.1: References to Legal Materials [216-224]; The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (2015) 

General

  • Begin references on a new page, then center & title it (neither bold nor underline): 
    References
  • Only works cited in-text must appear in References (except when referring to an entire web site, which is in-text only). Works consulted but not directly cited do not belong on the list of references. 
    Exception: Writing a Literature Review-type of article (which is vastly different from the lit review section of the scholarly project).
  • Some sites may refer to web pages as "articles." In APA style, articles are published in periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers/news sites). If it is not a periodical, reference as a web page.
  • Reference the same exact work only once in the list.
  • Make sure all entries use hanging indent, and are double-spaced.
  • Provide one space following end of sentence punctuation in References.
  • Arrange list alphabetically by first author last name.
  • Never use et al. in the References list.

Author Sentence

  • For a reference entry, list authors in the order they appear on the work.
  • Must include author middle initials when provided in the source (this is absolutely required). This directly affects the arrangement of entries in References.
  • Do not place a comma between author initials, but after the author first initial (when no middle is used), or after middle initial (when middle initial is used).
  • Must place a space between author initials.
  • When author has hyphenated first name, include periods for initials: M.-C.
  • Scandinavian author names such as van Soeren: Van is usually not the middle name, but rather part of the last name. Capitalize according to the form as it appears on the article.
  • When same exact set of authors in the same order & published same year, arrange alpha by title/part, and place lower-case letters immediately after year: (2001a) (2001b) [Manual, p. 182]. Use same year format for in-text cites.
  • When referencing works with more than 7 authors, there is a space between 6th author initial and ellipses. For example: Smith, L., . . . Bardin, T.
  • Format of author entries are last name, first initial, middle initial. Only exception is for authored chapter in an edited book.
  • When organization is author, do not include or replace name with acronym. Correct: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Incorrect: CDC.
  • When referencing U.S. government agencies as authors, do not spell out United States. Instead, provide initials without a space: U.S. 
    Also, provide the specific agency, not just the parent agency. Exception is CDC and some other well-known health agencies. See examples on APA guide & p. 205.

Publication Year

  • For journal articles, books, reports, & web pages, provide only the latest year.
  • For magazine articles, provide year, month such as: (2012, August)
  • For newspaper articles, provide year, month, day: (2017, July 10)

Capitalization of article, book, report, & web page titles

  • Basically, capitalize first word of title, & subtitle following a colon. Also proper names, abbreviations, & acronyms.
  • Titles of projects are considered proper names, and therefore capitalized.
  • Do not place quotation marks around article titles unless they appear on the article.
  • When including quotation marks in a title, the ending period goes inside, not outside of the ending quotation mark.

Source sentence: Journal articles

  • Journal titles: Do not use MEDLINE-type of abbreviations, such as Am J Nutr
  • Verify official title of journals (e.g., Formulary, not Formulary Journal).
  • Journal titles: If official title is an acronym, DO NOT expand title. Correct: JAMA, AORN Journal, AANA Journal 
    Incorrect: Journal of the American Medical Association
  • Only include location when part of official title-even if the publication title is a generic name. Correct: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Incorrect: The Mining Journal (Marquette).
  • Capitalize all significant words; that is, all words except conjunctions, articles, prepositions.
  • Italicize journal title and volume number (but not issue number or page numbers).
  • Must include volume number (unless not yet assigned due to advance publication). Suggest including issue number unless known for sure that journal uses continuous pagination throughout volume.
  • Article published in supplemental issue format is: 109(Suppl. 2)
  • Advanced online publications - Verify article status is still advanced (has not been published). Often, articles have been published between when first retrieved, and then later submitted for a grade.
  • Colons are not used in the source sentence.
  • Must provide complete beginning & ending page numbers for articles. However, if journal is published online-only which includes an article number not a page number, APA requires you provide the page number range of the PDF. Examples include titles beginning with BMC. 
    For journals which are only published in HTML format and do not provide page numbers, place a period after the issue number. For example, referencing articles from Online Journal of Issues in Nursing would look like this: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing 22(3).

DOI (digital object identifier)

  • Must provide assigned DOI; this is not a choice, but a requirement. NMU DNP students are required to use the new format (effective 3/1/17), which begins: https://doi.org/ 
    Zotero uses this new format.
  • Verify DOIs are correct and match the reference.
  • If you split a DOI address between lines, begin next line with a slash: /

DOI not appearing on article or book?

Where to locate DOI for one article

  1. Check the first page of article (usually in smaller print near journal logo, copyright, or near author email address).
  2. If not on article, check database record/abstract (sometimes labeled as DOI). CINAHL began adding DOIs in 2009.
  3. If DOI does not appear on either article or in database, search the Cross/Ref DOI Lookup using article author/title

Where to locate DOI for list of articles

  1. Create an account at Cross/Ref. After you submit your request, you will receive an e-mail. Please click on the provided link to activate your account.
  2. Next, go to Simple Text Query Form and enter your e-mail address, then copy & paste entire reference list into box. Click submit.
  • If article retrieved online is not assigned a DOI, then must provide journal home page URL. 
    Note: this is different than the URL of where you found the article.
  • Verify the correct journal URL which matches the article referenced. For example, there are at least three different journals titled Child Welfare.
  • URLs are not underlined or active (change Options - Proofing - Autocorrect settings in Word).
  • If you split URL between lines, next line must begin with a slash: /

Book, Reports, Government Documents

  • Referencing a book with editors? In most cases, reference the separately-authored chapter(s), not the entire book.
  • Very few quality/academic works lack an author. If unable to identify an author, search title in WorldCat to verify the author.

  • For reports, include report number in parentheses at end of title sentence. Also provide URL for PDF, not web page URL on which PDF link appears.
  • Print version: Include Place of publication (City, ST/Province) or (City, Country) followed by a colon : followed by publisher. 
    Name of publisher: exclude words such as Publishing, Pub., Co., or Inc. [Manual, p. 187]
  • Name of publisher: keep words such as Books and Press [Manual, p. 187]

  • Online version: Do not include exact URL, but instead the source URL (see Library's APA Guide for provider-specific examples). You may not substitute print reference information for an ebook.
  • No comma between book title and edition statement within parentheses.
  • When online reports are regularly updated, recommend using latest published report (current data).

Chapter in an edited book

  • Is the book edited, or just authored? Verify by looking at the title page and verso page (will state edited by or Ed.).
  • Begin entry by providing author(s) of book chapter. Year of publication. Title of chapter.
  • Include page numbers of entire chapter, not just cited portion.

Web pages

  • If no individual(s) responsible for page, provide organization/agency as author.
  • Include latest year of publication as indicated on web page. Except for some government agencies, most provide year.
  • Titles of web pages are no longer italicized (changed in fall 2014).
  • For web pages, indicate exact date of retrieval.
  • If source is behind a paywall or "member-only," provide home page URL.
  • Verify URLs for web pages; update broken URLs.
  • Use caution when referencing lecture notes by a graduate TA or papers posted by students, as their credibility is questionable.
  • Some sites may refer to web pages as "articles." In APA style, articles are published in periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers/news sites). If it is not a periodical, reference as a web page.

MLA Style to APA Style References (6th Edition)

Creating References
Transitioning from MLA Style (Handbook, 8th ed., 2016)
to
APA Style (Publication Manual, 6th Edition, 2010, second printing or later; 
APA Guide to Electronic References, 2012; official APA style blog) 

Created by Prof. Mike Strahan
Updated 8/24/2019

Found the following work while searching ERIC, and retrieved online after clicking
Get this for me [NMU Olson Library]

Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities
Hugh W. Catts, Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges and Katherin Mendoza
Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 42, No. 2, 163-176 (2009)

MLA Works Cited entry (retrieved from publisher web site):

Catts, Hugh W., Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges 

          and Katherin Mendoza. "Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and

          Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities." Journal of Learning

          Disabilities, vol. 42, no. 2, March/April 2009, pp. 163-176. doi:10.1177/0022219408326219. 

[Note that if we had found the full-text of this article in an online database, the name of the database
in italics would be inserted between the page numbers and DOI.]

APA Reference entry, DOI assigned:

Catts, H. W., Petscher, Y., Schatschneider, C., Bridges, M. S., & Mendoza, K. (2009).

          Floor effects associated with universal screening and their impact on the early

          identification of reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 163-176. 

          https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219408326219

 

Explanation of APA reference components

 

Reference
Section
APA format & notes
Author Use last name, first and middle initials. Separate two or last two authors by an ampersand (&). If work has more than 7 authors, list first 6, then three dots ... then last author. This is a major change from previous APA guidelines.
Publication Year For journal articles, only provide the year. For magazine articles, include year followed by month. For example: (2008, June).
Article Title Only capitalize first letter of first word for title and subtitle. Also capitalize proper names, acronyms, & abbreviations. Unlike MLA, no quotation marks.
Journal Title Capitalize all words except articles. Entire title in italics.
Volume Number Italics
Issue Number

Most scholarly/research journals use continuous pagination; that is, the first issue of a volume begins with page 1, and the page numbers continue until the end of the last issue in the volume.

However, in the online environment, many researchers are not familiar enough with the journal to know whether each issue is separately paginated; that is, each issue begins with page 1.

Therefore, it is recommended researchers include the issue number within parentheses (not italics) immediately following the volume number: 55(6)

Page Numbers

Include all page numbers where article appears. Do not use sloppy format, such as 163-76; instead write complete range: 163-176.

If journal is published online-only and articles are numbered, use pagination indicated in PDF form of article. Example: 1-12.

DOI - Digital Object Identifier

Unique number assigned to primarily journal articles, and some 
e-books and e-book chapters.

Note that not all articles are assigned a DOI, especially popular magazine and newspaper articles. The DOI always begins with 10 followed by a period and four digits and a slash. Example: 10.1177/

Remaining part of identifier may be all numbers, all letters, or combination of letters and numbers.

Beginning March 1, 2017, APA changed the format of the DOI to begin with https://doi.org/ 
followed by the assigned DOI. 

Even though some databases and journals may not use the current format, researchers & students are expected to follow the current standard format in their APA references.

 

APA Style (7th Edition)

(This APA style guide last revised: 2/26/20)

On this APA style Guide, all referrals to the  Manual  is for the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition, © 2020.

The 7th edition APA style Manual was released Oct. 1, 2019, along with their new official APA style Blog.

Please see tabs indicating "7th ed." for Manual Introduction and Instructional Aids for transitioning to new style as reflected in the Manual.

Note that as of this initial style guide launch, neither APA nor NMU Lydia Olson Library plan to provide a table showing all of the differences between 6th ed. & 7th edition styles (there are too many). Instead, please consult the Manual.
 

Looking for the NMU Olson Library APA style 6th edition guide? Click here. It will be available until at least September 1, 2022


Note: Enforcement of APA style is up to course instructor or publication editor.
 

Notes on Spacing of reference entries: APA style 7th edition references remain as hanging indent & double-spaced entries (one blank line between lines of text). There is not an extra blank line between the line at the top entitled References and the first entry. Also, there is not an extra blank line between reference entries.

Note on space between sentences: Throughout entire paper/manuscript (not just references anymore), there is only one space between end of sentence punctuation and beginning of next sentence.

General notable changes in reference formats

1. Works with 1-20 authors: List all authors.

2. Works with 21 or more authors: List first 19, an ellipse, then the last author.

3. All titles of sources in references (except legal references) are italicized. This includes journal name, book title, webpage title, etc. Only for legal references are in-text citations italicized. 

4. Place of publication is no longer included in book & report references. However, publisher is still required. 

5. DOIs and URLs now appear as hyperlinks, beginning with either https:// or http://  and--depending on the word processor--may be underlined & in blue font. APA also allows these as plain black text not underlined.

As such, APA now accepts either of these as correct format (no need to change). See Manual, Section 9.35, pp. 299-300.

Examples on this guide now reflect what normally appears in word processing applications, namely blue font & underline.

6. Allow word processors to automatically split DOIs and URLs between lines, or place them on the next line leaving a partial line above.

7. APA 7th edition now allows for DOI or URL Shorteners (Section 9.36. p. 300). To create these, use the APA-recommended International DOI Foundation < http://shortdoi.org >, or the variety of URL shorteners available. 
However, examples on this guide will not employ shortened DOIs/URLs.

NOTES: 

Works with 1-20 authors: List all authors.

Works with 21 or more authors: List first 19, an ellipse, then the last author.

Provide issue numbers for all periodicals which use issue numbers (regardless whether continuously paginated or each issue begins with page 1).

NOTES:

Please verify DOI format with journal author guidelines before submission.

APA 7th ed. Rule 9.25: Include the issue number for all periodicals which have issue numbers

Some online-only journals use publication year as volume number. For those references, provide year in both publication date, and volume number positions.

When a DOI is assigned, it does not matter whether article was retrieved online or print version.
 

Journal Article

  • Wilens, T. E., & Biederman, J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(4), 580-588. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Wilens & Biederman, 2006)
    Narrative: Wilens and Biederman (2006)
    Direct quote: (Wilens & Biederman, 2006, p. 581)

Journal Article with 3 through 20 authors. List all authors (note 7th ed. change for in-text citations)

  • Weich, C., Jensen, R. L., & Vieten, M. (2019). Triathlon transition study: Quantifying differences in running movement pattern and precision after bike-run transition. Sports Biomechanics, 18(2), 215–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2017.1391324

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Weich et al., 2019)
    Narrative: Weich et al. (2019)
    Direct quote: (Weich et al., 2019, p. 216)

Journal Article, 21 or more authors (list first 19, ellipse, last author)

  • Janda, M., Gebski, V., Davies, L. C., Forder, P., Brand, A., Hogg, R., Jobling, T., Land, R., Manolitsas, T., Nascimento, M., Neesham, D., Nicklin, J. L., Oehler, M. K., Otton, G., Perrin, L., Salfinger, S., Hammond, I., Leung, Y., Sykes, P., ... Obermair, A. (2017). Effect of total laparoscopic hysterectomy vs total abdominal hysterectomy on disease-free survival among women with stage I endometrial cancer: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 317(12), 1224–1233. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.2068

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Janda et al., 2017)
    Narrative: Janda et al. (2017)
    Direct quote: (Janda et al., 2017, p. 1224) 

Journal Article which provides an article number or eLocator in place of page numbers. Note: For these types of articles, 7th ed. no longer provides page numbers from PDF in reference. 
Instead, APA prefaces the "page number" section with (capitalized): Article
followed by the number.

Some (but not all) publishers prefix the article number/eLocator with a lower-case letter "e". 
The issue number was provided.

  • Monroy, C., Shafto, C., Castellanos, I., Bergeson, T., & Houston, D. (2019). Visual habituation in deaf and hearing infants. PLoS One, 14(2), Article e0209265. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209265

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Monroy et al., 2019)
    Narrative: Monroy et al. (2019)
    Direct quote:  (Monroy et al., 2019, p. 4)

Journal Article which provides an article number or eLocator in place of page numbers. Note: For these types of articles, 7th ed. no longer provides page numbers from PDF in reference. 
Instead, APA prefaces the "page number" section with (capitalized): Article
followed by the number.

No issue number was provided. 

  • Norris, E., Shelton, N., Dunsmuir, S., Duke-Williams, O., & Stamatakis, E. (2015). Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: A pilot study. BMC Public Health, 15, Article 366. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1706-5

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Norris et al., 2015)
    Narrative: Norris et al. (2015)
    Direct quote: (Norris et al., 2015, p. 6)

Journal Article which provides an article number or eLocator in place of page numbers. Note: For these types of articles, 7th ed. no longer provides page numbers from PDF in reference. 
Instead, APA prefaces the "page number" section with (capitalized): Article
followed by the number.

Journal uses publication year for volume number.
No issue number was provided.  

  • Lawrence, J. E., Patel, A. S., Rovin, R. A., Belton, R. J., Bammert, C. E., Steele, C. J., & Winn, R. J. (2014). Quantification of protoporphyrin IX accumulation in glioblastoma cells: A new technique. ISRN Surgery, 2014, Article 405360. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/405360

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Lawrence et al., 2014)
    Narrative: Lawrence et al. (2014)
    Direct quote: (Lawrence et al., 2014, p. 3)

Journal Article, combination of individual and group authors

  • Toland, A. E., Brody, L. C., & BIC Steering Committee. (2019). Lessons learned from two decades of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing: The evolution of data sharing and variant classification. Genetics in Medicine, 21(7), 1476–1480. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0370-4

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Toland, 2019)
    Narrative: Toland (2019)
    Direct quote: (Toland, 2019, p. 1476)

Cochrane Database Report retrieved from Cochrane Library (has own format because reviews are only available in this database. Further explanation in Manual p. 297 and p. 319 ).

  • Garcia‐Casal, M. N., Peña‐Rosas, J. P., De‐Regil, L. M., Gwirtz, J. A., & Pasricha, S.-R. (2018). Fortification of maize flour with iron for controlling anaemia and iron deficiency in populations. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010187.pub2

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Garcia-Casal, 2018)
    Narrative: Garcia-Casal (2018)
    Direct quote: (Garcia-Casal, 2018, p. 3)

Advance online article (published online before print).

  • Kishore, T. A., Kuriakose, M. J., Pathrose, G., Raveendran, V., Kumar, K. V., & Unni, V. N. (2019). Robotic assisted kidney transplantation in grafts with multiple vessels: Single center experience. International Urology and Nephrology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-019-02305-z

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Kishore, 2019)
    Narrative: Kishore (2019)
    Direct quote: (Kishore, 2019, Discussion section, para. 4)

For one article:

  1. Check the first page of article (usually in smaller print near journal logo, copyright, or near author email address).
  2. If not on article, check database record/abstract (sometimes labeled as DOI). CINAHL began adding DOIs in 2009.
  3. If DOI does not appear on either article or in database, search the Cross/Ref DOI Lookup using article author/title


For list of references:

       Go to Simple Text Query Form and copy & paste entire reference list into box. Click submit.


An individual DOI may be verified/searched:
Resolve a DOI name

Journal Article without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version

  • Williams, J. (2008). The victims of crime. Sociology Review, 17(4), 30-32.

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Williams, 2008)
    Narrative: Williams (2008)
    Direct quote: (Williams, 2008, p. 30) 

Journal Article without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL (provide full URL)

  • Arakji, R. Y., & Lang, K. R. (2008). Avatar business value analysis: A method for the evaluation of business value creation in virtual commerce. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 9(3), 207-218. http://www.jecr.org/node/132

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Arakji & Lang, 2008)
    Narrative: Arakji and Lang (2008)
    Direct quote: (Arakji & Lang, 2008, p. 208) 

Magazine Article, from most academic research databases or print version. Note to provide full date of publication.

  • Velchansky, G. (2018, July/August). Growing our advocacy potential: How the Michigan Reading Association gets its members involved and expands its literacy presence. Literacy Today, 36(1), 40–41.

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Velchansky, 2018)
    Narrative: Velchansky (2018)
    Direct quote: (Velchansky, 2018, p. 41) 

Magazine Article, with a nondatabase URL (provide full URL). 
Note to provide full date of publication.

Webpage on a news website. Note to include full publication date. 

Newspaper Article, from online newspaper site. Note to include full publication date.

Newspaper Article, from most academic research databases or print version. Note to include full publication date. 

  • Von Drehle, D. (2000, January 15). Russians unveil new security plan. The Washington Post, A1, A21.

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Von Drehle, 2000)
    Narrative: Von Drehle (2000)
    Direct quote: (Von Drehle, 2000, p. A1) 

For additional examples, please see Manual, pp. 330-331.

Nursing Code of Ethics. When author and publisher are the same, omit publisher name

  • American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (American Nurses Association, 2015)
    Parenthetical, plan to cite multiple times: (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2015)
    Parenthetical subsequent citation: (ANA, 2015)

    Narrative: American Nurses Association (2015)
    Narrative, plan to cite multiple times: American Nurses Association (ANA, 2015)
    Narrative subsequent citation: ANA (2015)

    Direct quote: (American Nurses Association, 2015, p. 5)
    Direct quote subsequent citation: (ANA, 2015, p. 8)

Notes on Books references: New for 7th edition

All books (even those retrieved online) must include publisher.
However, place of publication is no longer included in references.

When electronic book is retrieved from academic research database and was not assigned a DOI, you no longer include name of database. 
However, if that ebook is ONLY available from that database, then such additional information is provided in the reference.

 

Book without an author or editor, no DOI assigned, subsequent edition. Note to place title in the author position & alphabetize on references list using the first significant word in the title.

  • Nursing 2020 drug handbook (40th ed.). (2020). Wolters Kluwer.

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Nursing 2020 Drug Handbook, 2020)
    Narrative: Nursing 2020 Drug Handbook (2020)
    Direct quote: (Nursing 2020 Drug Handbook, 2020, p. 288)  

Authored book without a DOI, from academic research database or print version

  • Vogel, C. G. (1999). Legends of landforms: Native American lore and the geology of the land. Millbook Press. 

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Vogel, 1999)
    Narrative: Vogel (1999)
    Direct quote: (Vogel, 1999, p. 100)

Illustrated children's book without a DOI, including author & illustrator, from academic research database or print version. Note that many of these books do not have page numbers, so cite direct quote using section (if provided) and paragraph number. Recommendation: if no section names, count paragraphs from beginning of book.

  • Brown, M. W., & Hurd, C. (Illus.). (1947). Goodnight moon. Harper. 

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Brown & Hurd, 1947)
    Narrative: Brown and Hurd (1947)
    Direct quote: There are many things in the room, including "a telephone and a red balloon" (Brown & Hurd, 1947, para. 1)

Authored book without a DOI, from academic research database or print version, multiple authors

  • Larson, G. W., Ellis, D. C., & Rivers, P. C. (1984). Essentials of chemical dependency counseling. Columbia University Press.

    How to cite this work in-text:
    Parenthetical: (Larson et al., 1984)
    Narrative: Larson et al., (1984)
    Direct quote: (Larson et al., 1984, p. 98) 

    Authored book without a DOI, subsequent edition, with a nondatabase URL (example accessed directly from publisher)

    Authored book without a DOI, organization as author, with a nondatabase URL. When author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher.

    • [example forthcoming]

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:  

    Authored book assigned a DOI, multiple authors

    • Valencia, C. A., Pervaiz, M. A., Husami, A., Qian, Y., & Zhang, K. (2013). Next generation sequencing technologies in medical genetics. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9032-6

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Valencia et al., 2013)
      Narrative: Valencia et al. (2013)
      Direct quote: (Valencia et al., 2013, p. 26)  

    One volume of a multivolume work with editors indicated but without a DOI, chapters not separately authored, subsequent edition, from academic research database or print version

    • Moore, M. S., & Levitan, L. (Eds.). (2016). For hearing people only: Answers to some of the most commonly asked questions about the Deaf community, its culture, and the "Deaf reality" (4th ed., Vol. 2). Deaf Life Press.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Moore & Levitan, 2016)
      Narrative: Moore and Levitan (2016)
      Direct quote: (Moore & Levitan, 2016, p. 65) 

    Article or chapter in an edited book (editors indicated, chapters separately authored) but without a DOI, from academic research database or print version 

    • Hartley, J. T., Harker, J. O., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). American Psychological Association.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Hartley et al., 1980)
      Narrative: Hartley et al. (1980)
      Direct quote: (Hartley et al., 1980, p. 241) 

    Article or chapter in a book where each chapter is written by a Contributor, and book has authors (not editors), subsequent edition

    • Polomano, R. C., & Fillman, M. (2017). Pain. In S. L. Lewis, L. Bucher, M. M. Heitkemper, L. Bucher, & M. Harding, Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (10th ed., pp. 102-128). Elsevier.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Polomano & Fillman, 2017)
      Narrative: Polomano and Fillman (2017)
      Direct quote: (Polomano & Fillman, 2017, p. 125)

    Article or chapter in a book where each chapter is written by author(s), publisher is book author (so omit publisher name), subsequent edition

    • Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The five practices of exemplary leadership. In Jossey-Bass, The Jossey-Bass reader on educational leadership (2nd ed., rev. ed., pp. 63-72).

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Kouzes & Posner, 2007)
      Narrative: Kouzes and Posner (2007)
      Direct quote: (Kouzes & Posner, 2007, p. 64) 

    Notes on Reports references: New for 7th edition

    All reports (even those retrieved online) must include publisher.
    However, place of publication is no longer included in references.

    When a report is retrieved from an academic research database and was not assigned a DOI, you no longer include name of database. 

    However, if that report is ONLY available from that database, then such additional information is provided in the reference. This is the case for reports/documents provided in the ERIC database. Please see separate section in this style guide for examples of how to format ERIC documents references.

     

    Code of Ethics. When author and publisher are the same, omit publisher name

    • American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (American Nurses Association, 2015)
      Parenthetical, plan to cite multiple times: (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2015)
      Parenthetical subsequent citation: (ANA, 2015)

      Narrative: American Nurses Association (2015)
      Narrative, plan to cite multiple times: American Nurses Association (ANA, 2015)
      Narrative subsequent citation: ANA (2015)

      Direct quote: (American Nurses Association, 2015, p. 5)
      Direct quote, plan to cite multiple times: (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2015, p. 5)
      Direct quote subsequent citation: (ANA, 2015, p. 8)

    Organization-Authored report assigned a DOI, no report number

    • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2013). Human genome editing: Science, ethics, and governance. The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24623

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2013)
      Narrative: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2013)
      Direct quote: (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2013, p. 29)

    Organization-Authored report without a DOI, from academic research database or print version. Has report number. When author and publisher are the same, omit publisher name

    • National League for Nursing. (1990). Self-study report for community health organizations (NLN Publication No. 21-2329).

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (National League for Nursing, 1990)
      Narrative: National League for Nursing (1990)
      Direct quote: (National League for Nursing, 1990, p. 17)

    Organization-Authored report without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL. 

    Individual-authored report, with publication date & report number, and with a nondatabase URL. Agency name is placed in publisher position.

    • Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb17.jsp

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Russo & Jiang, 2006)
      Narrative: Russo and Jiang (2006)
      Direct quote: (Russo & Jiang, 2006, Findings section, para. 1)

    Report/Document and no author identified. When no publication date indicated, provide title first

    • [example forthcoming] 

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    Individual webpage which appears on a website

    Since webpages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, publisher, etc.

    Note that proper names, acronyms, and abbreviations are always capitalized.

    New for 7th ed.

    1. For date of publication, only provide full date if it appears within the content. 
    You may use "last updated" date if it applies to content, and is not part of website footer (APA Manual, Section 9.13).
    "Do not use a copyright date from a webpage or website footer" (APA Manual, Section 9.13). As a result, most webpages will not have a date, so indicate (n.d.).

    2. Title of webpage is now italicized.

    3. The phrases "Retrieved from" or "Access from" or the word "website" are no longer included in references. Instead, provide only the URL. (APA Manual, Section 9.35)

    4. Date of retrieval is included ONLY when "citing an unarchived (i.e., not stable) work that is likely or meant to change" (APA Manual, Section 9.16).
    Examples of works which are "inherently designed to change" include webpage versions of dictionaries/encyclopedias, Twitter, and Facebook. See examples in further sections of this Guide.

    5. For government webpages authored by an agency, place agency name in the author position, and if a parent agency also appears then place that name in the publisher/site position. However, if the parent agency does not appear on the page, do not include it in the reference--even if it is known.

    6. URLs are presented as hyperlinks beginning with either protocol of "http://" or "https://" (APA Manual, Section 9.35).
    It is highly recommended researchers copy & paste the URL exactly as it appears, including the protocol. For example, do not convert protocol http:// to https:// as the source may not be designed as a secure website.

    7. Utilize default display settings of word processing programs as either underlined in blue text, or plain text as the 6th ed. used. Also, links should be live if it is expected to be published or read online (APA Manual, Section 9.35). 
    Instructors often refer to this format as an "active link."

    8. Do not worry about forcing a split of URLs between lines. In the 7th edition, it is acceptable to allow word processing software to automatically split the URL between multiple lines, or move the URL to begin on the next line (APA Manual, Section 9.35).

    Recommendation: If the webpage is also available as an online document/report (for example in PDF), please download that report and provide that URL. Use the online report format examples on this Guide listed under the Reports sections, and cite in-text appropriately.

    9. For direct quotation from a webpage, because source does not contain page numbers, there are multiple options for verbiage at the end of in-text citation:
    section name followed by the word section
    abbreviated section name within quotation marks with word section
    para. followed by the paragraph number
    section name followed by the word section, followed by para. and paragraph number

    APA states to "use the approach that will best help readers find the quotation" [Manual, p. 273]. 

    Individual person(s) as author(s) (note capitalization of proper names, & when persons are authors you must include name of website)

    • Gerber, J. (n.d.). Director's page. Oscar Grady Public Library. http://www.oscargradylibrary.org/?page_id=6884

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Gerber, n.d.)
      Narrative: Gerber (n.d.)
      Direct quote: (Gerber, n.d., para. 2)

    Group of people as authors, & shows content date. "by Mayo Clinic Staff " appears on the webpage

    Government Agency as author, parent agency appears on page, shows updated date

    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, November 12). Healthier holidays in 1 – 2 – 3! U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/features/stay-active/index.html

      How to cite this work in-text, assume citing work more than once, so include acronym for subsequent cite:
      Parenthetical: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019)
      Narrative: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2019)
      Direct quote with only abbreviated name of section:
           (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019, "Plan Activities" section)
      Direct quote including abbreviated section and paragraph number:
           (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019, "Plan Activities" section, para. 3)

    Organization as author, no update year

    Note regarding citing an entire website source

    When discussing an entire website (as opposed to a specific page on the website), an entry does not appear in the reference list, but is cited within text as shown in the following sample sentence:
    The International Council of Museums web site provides many links to museums, codes of ethics, and the museum profession (https://icom.museum/en/).

    New for APA 7th ed. - Course content is now a reference, not personal communication (6th ed.)

    When course materials such as a syllabus, lecture notes, or presentation slides (e.g., PowerPoint) are available only from through a course website or course management systems (e.g., NMU EduCat, Moodle, or Blackboard), create reference entry using the following examples (Manual, p. 347, example # 102).

    Reference entry includes: author, year, title with format type in square brackets, name of course management system (if applicable), and URL.
    If retrieved from course management system, provide login URL, not the exact URL of the content.

    Slides from within a course management system

    • Imdieke, S. (2019). Organizing for effective reading instruction [PowerPoint slides]. NMU EduCat. https://educat.nmu.edu/ 

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Imdieke, 2019)
      Narrative: Imdieke (2019)
      Direct quote: (Imdieke, 2019, Slide 3)

    YouTube Video (provide name of person/group who uploaded the video, regardless of role)
    Note: When citing direct quote from audiovisual works, include time stamp of when quoted segment begins.

    • UP Above Productions. (2018, April 8). U.P. 200 sled dog race - Marquette [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7lI9QzkCzU0

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (U.P. Above Productions, 2018)
      Narrative: U.P. Above Productions (2018)
      Direct quote: (U.P. Above Productions, 2018, 1:10)


    Video Webcast from Television Series Single Episode


    Film / Movie / Motion Picture / Video on DVD
    Notes: Provide url of official source where one can acquire the DVD (usually publisher's page).
    When citing direct quote from audiovisual works, include time stamp of where segment begins.

    • Chrisman, S. (Producer & Director). (2003). Lumberjack life: U.P. days of yore [Film; educational DVD]. WNMU-TV. https://wnmutv.nmu.edu/programs/purchase-dvd/

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Chrisman, 2003)
      Narrative: Chrisman (2003)
      Direct quote: (Chrisman, 2003, 15:02)


    Audio Podcast

    • Shockley, C. (Host), & Charney, T. (Producer). (2007, August 19). Ashes to hope: Overcoming the Detroit riots [Audio podcast]. Michigan Radio NPR. https://www.michiganradio.org/post/ashes-hope-overcoming-detroit-riots

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Shockley & Charney, 2007)
      Narrative: Shockley and Charney (2007)
      Direct quote: (Shockley & Charney, 2007, 7:41)

    When citing a work accessed online, please remember to apply APA 7th ed. rule regarding date of publication: it must be for the content. That is, do not use footer template year.

    Reference components include: author of visual work itself, year of source, title followed in square brackets by type of medium, site name, and URL (if retrieved online).

    All of the examples below include the url to the visual work itself, not to the webpage which has the image of the visual work.

    If you plan on directly quoting content from the webpage where the visual work appears, then look at & use the webpage examples on this guide, not the examples below.

    If it will make it easier to find the visual work, you may provide the url of the work itself (jpg, etc.) instead of the webpage url. This is especially helpful if there are many visual items which appear on a webpage.

    If the visual work does not have a title, provide description including type of medium (see example below).

    Provide: artist as author, year(s) of creation (as attributed by the museum/gallery), title in italics followed by type of medium in square brackets, name of museum/gallery, city, state / province (if applicable), and country. If image of visual work is available online, then include URL to that image.

    Additional examples are in the Manual, pp. 346-347.


    Diagram

    • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2013, July 2). intercellular lipid pathway [Diagram].Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/skin/images/skin6.jpg

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2013)
      Narrative: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2013)
       

    Photograph. Work does not have a name/title. This example has publication date.


    Artwork in a museum or on a museum website.

    Blog post

    • Pottorff, A. (2019, July 11). Rural energy dialogues: Rural America’s role in the energy revolution. Jefferson Center. https://jefferson-center.org/rural-americas-role-in-the-energy-revolution/

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Pottorff, 2019)
      Narrative: Pottorff (2019)
      Direct quote: (Pottorff, 2019, Build Clarity and Understanding section, para. 3)
      Direct quote, abbreviated heading/section name (include within quotation marks): (Pottorff, 2019, "Support an Energy System" section, para. 1)


    Online forum post

    • Jameson, J. (2018, May 31). Teaching critical appraisal [Online forum post]. Caucus - Nursing and Allied Health Resources Discussions. https://www.mlanet.org/p/fo/st/topic=56&post=26770

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Jameson, 2018)
      Narrative: Jameson (2018)
      Direct quote: (Jameson, 2018, para. 1)

    Government webpages

    Since webpages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, publisher, etc.

    Note that proper names, acronyms, and abbreviations are always capitalized.

    New for 7th ed.

    1. For date of publication, only provide full date if it appears within the content. 
    You may use "last updated" date if it applies to content, and is not part of website footer (APA Manual, Section 9.13).
    "Do not use a copyright date from a webpage or website footer" (APA Manual, Section 9.13). As a result, most webpages will not have a date, so indicate (n.d.).

    2. Title of webpage is now italicized.

    3. The phrases "Retrieved from" or "Access from" or the word "website" are no longer included in references. Instead, provide only the URL. (APA Manual, Section 9.35)

    4. Date of retrieval is included ONLY when "citing an unarchived (i.e., not stable) work that is likely or meant to change" (APA Manual, Section 9.16).
    Examples of works which are "inherently designed to change" include webpage versions of dictionaries/encyclopedias, Twitter, and Facebook. See examples in further sections of this Guide.

    5. For government webpages authored by an agency, place agency name in the author position, and if a parent agency also appears then place that name in the publisher/site position. However, if the parent agency does not appear on the page, do not include it in the reference--even if it is known.

    6. URLs are presented as hyperlinks beginning with either protocol of "http://" or "https://" (APA Manual, Section 9.35).
    It is highly recommended researchers copy & paste the URL exactly as it appears, including the protocol. For example, do not convert protocol http:// to https:// as the source may not be designed as a secure website.

    7. Utilize default display settings of word processing programs as either underlined in blue text, or plain text as the 6th ed. used. Also, links should be live if it is expected to be published or read online (APA Manual, Section 9.35). 
    Instructors often refer to this format as an "active link."

    8. Do not worry about forcing a split of URLs between lines. In the 7th edition, it is acceptable to allow word processing software to automatically split the URL between multiple lines, or move the URL to begin on the next line (APA Manual, Section 9.35).

    Recommendation: If the webpage is also available as an online document/report (for example in PDF), please download that report and provide that URL. Use the online report format examples on this Guide listed under the Books & Reports section, and cite in-text appropriately.

    9. For direct quotation from a webpage, because source does not contain page numbers, there are multiple options for verbiage at the end of in-text citation:
    section name followed by the word section
    abbreviated section name within quotation marks with word section
    para. followed by the paragraph number
    section name followed by the word section, followed by para. and paragraph number

    APA states to "use the approach that will best help readers find the quotation" [Manual, p. 273]. 

    U.S. Government webpage. Author is parent agency. Archived date listed as "Last updated". Provide full date, not just year of publication. Also do not forget to italicize title.

    • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2019, July 30). Health effects of ozone pollution. https://www.epa.gov/ground-level-ozone-pollution/health-effects-ozone-pollution

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2019)
      Narrative: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2019)
      Direct quote: (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2019, Who is at Risk? section, para. 2)

    U.S. Government webpage. When author (agency) & parent agency are different and appear on page. In this example, entire title is name of a place (proper noun). 7th ed. rule is to provide parent agency & subagency in site name position. Archived date listed as "Last updated". Provide full date, not just year of publication. Also do not forget to italicize title.

    • National Park Service. (2019, November 19). Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. U.S. Department of the Interior. https://www.nps.gov/piro/index.htm

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (National Park Service, 2019)
      Narrative: National Park Service (2019)
      Direct quote: (National Park Service, 2019, para. 1)

    U.S. Government webpage. Include parent agency in site name position. Archived date listed as "Last updated". Provide full date, not just year of publication. Also do not forget to italicize title.
    In-text citation examples for this entry are for one-time only, not subsequent (see webpages examples above for initial with agency acronym & subsequent entries).

    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, November 12). Healthier holidays in 1 – 2 – 3! U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/features/stay-active/index.html

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019)
      Narrative: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019)
      Direct quote with only abbreviated name of section:
           (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, "Plan Activities" section)
      Direct quote including abbreviated section and paragraph number:
           (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, "Plan Activities" section, para. 3)

    State of Michigan government webpage, agency author, parent agency does not appear on webpage. This example is of an online form, no date provided for content (just in webpage footer), has site name. Do not forget to italicize title. In-text cite of quotation section heading shortened, so use quotation marks.

    • Michigan Department of Attorney General. (n.d.). Consumer complaint/inquiry form.https://secure.ag.state.mi.us/complaints/consumer.aspx

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Michigan Department of Attorney General, n.d.)
      Narrative: Michigan Department of Attorney General (n.d.)
      Direct quote: (Michigan Department of Attorney General, n.d., "Please Be Aware" section, para. 1)

    Notes: Not all U.S. government reports & documents are published by GPO.
    When the author and publisher are the same, omit publisher from source element.

     

    U.S. Government Report, no report number indicated.
    7th ed. lists parent agency & subagency in publisher position. 


    U.S. Government Report, authored by agency, report number indicated. APA 7th ed. places parent agency & subagency in publisher position. 
    Note that the agency publication number may appear on the web document or in the library catalog.


    Statistical Brief authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number.

    • Weiss, A. J., McDermott, K. W., & Heslin, K. C. (2019). Opioid-Related hospital stays among women, 2016 (HCUP Statistical Brief No. 247). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb247-Opioid-Hospital-Stays-Women.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Weiss et al., 2019)
      Narrative: Weiss et al. (2019)
      Direct quote: (Weiss et al., 2019, p. 6)


    U.S. Government document, no publication number, retrieved print format

    • Baker, R. A. (2006). 200 notable days: Senate stories, 1787 to 2002. U.S. Government Printing Office.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Baker, 2006)
      Narrative: Baker (2006)
      Direct quote: In November 1922, Rebecca Felton was appointed the "first woman to a Senate vacancy" (Baker, 2006, p. 128).


    U.S. Government document with publication number, retrieved print format
    Note that the agency publication number may appear on the document or in the online catalog.

    • Olson, T. A., & Odlaug, T. O. (1972). Lake Superior periphyton in relation to water quality (EPA Publication No. 18050-DBM-02-72). U.S. Government Printing Office.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Olson & Odlaug, 1972)
      Narrative: Olson and Odlaug (1972)
      Direct quote: (Olson & Odlaug, 1972, p. 8)


    State of Michigan Government document without publication number. APA 7th ed. places parent agency in publisher position. 

    • Michigan Civil Rights Commission. (2017). The Flint water crisis: Systemic racism through the lens of Flint: Report of the Michigan Civil Rights Commission, February 17, 2017. Michigan Department of Civil Rights. https://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdcr/VFlintCrisisRep-F-Edited3-13-17_554317_7.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Michigan Civil Rights Commission, 2017)
      Narrative: Michigan Civil Rights Commission (2017)
      Direct quote: (Michigan Civil Rights Commission, 2017, p. 33)


    State of Michigan Government document without publication number. Retrieved print format. When author and publisher are same, omit publisher name.

    • Michigan Department of Community Health, & Michigan Dementia Coalition. (2003). Michigan dementia plan summary: Reducing the burden of dementia in Michigan

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Michigan Department of Community Health, & Michigan Dementia Coalition, 2003)
      Narrative: Michigan Department of Community Health, & Michigan Dementia Coalition (2003)
      Direct quote: (Michigan Department of Community Health, & Michigan Dementia Coalition, 2003, p. 9)

    Notes regarding Dictionaries:

    Definition Entry in a general Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no date, no editor. Note: When no entry author is provided, move name of word into author position. For direct quote, recommend providing more-specific information.

    • Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Love. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved February 14, 2020, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diabetes

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)
      Narrative: Merriam-Webster (n.d.)
      Direct quote: (Merriam-Webster, n.d., Entry 1 of 2, Definition 3b)


    Entry in a specialized/subject Dictionary without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version. 
    Note that even though this is an ebook, the entries are not viewable in PDF.

    • Harris, J., & White, V. (Eds.). (2018). Feminist social work. In A dictionary of social work and social care (2nd ed.). F. A. Davis.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Harris & White, 2018)
      Narrative: Harris and White (2018)
      Direct quote: (Harris & White, 2018, para. 2)

    Notes regarding Encyclopedias:

    When website form online reference work content indicates last updated, include that as its publication year. However, do not include a reviewed date. 

    Online webpage/website encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc. are "inherently designed to change," and as such, references must include a date of retrieval unless a specific edition is indicated (Manual, Sects. 9.16 & 10.3).

    However, treat online form of printed encyclopedias similar to chapter in edited book, and use published year.

    Entry in an online Encyclopedia with entry author name, without a DOI. Include date of retrieval.


    Entry in an online Encyclopedia with author name and publisher, without a DOI. Since version of entry is archived, no date of retrieval is necessary.

    • LoCicero, R. (2019). Hemophilia B. In A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia. National Library of Medicine. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000539.htm

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (LoCicero, 2019)
      Narrative: LoCicero (2019)
      Direct quote: (LoCicero, 2019, Causes section, para. 1)


    Entry in an Encyclopedia without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version, with entry author, multiple volume set

    • Hanegraaff, W. (2005). New Age movement. In L. Jones (Ed.), Encyclopedia of religion (2nd ed., Vol. 10, pp. 6495-6500). Macmillan Reference USA.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Hanegraaff, 2005)
      Narrative: Hanegraaff (2005)
      Direct quote: (Hanegraaff, 2005, p. 6495)


    Entry in an Encyclopedia assigned a DOI (online or print), with entry author, and is a single volume

    • Mori, S. (2016). Japan: Deaf community. In G. Gertz & P. Boudreault (Eds.), The Sage Deaf Studies encyclopedia (pp. 528-532). Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483346489

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Mori, 2016)
      Narrative: Mori (2016)
      Direct quote: (Mori, 2016, p. 529)


    Entry in Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) - without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version, with entry author

    Title of the review and authorship appears in italics at the beginning of the review narrative (example provided below). Also, note that many entries published in MMY contain more than one review. Title of the test is capitalized.

    Entry information:

    Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments by NANCY L. ALLEN, Research Scientist, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    Reference entry:

    • Allen, N. L. (1992). Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments. In J. J. Kramer & J. C. Conoley (Eds.), The eleventh mental measurements yearbook. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska Press.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Allen, 1992)
      Narrative: Allen (1992)
      Direct quote: (Allen, 1992, p. 211)

    Citing specific chapter in DSM-5 (each assigned individual DOI) 

     

     

    DSM-5 with a DOI, organization as both author & publisher

     

     

    ICD-11 without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL, organization as both author & publisher

    • World Health Organization. (2019). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (11th ed.). https://icd.who.int/


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    For legislative and legal materials, APA uses the conventional legal citation format found in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (latest edition). Guidelines and additional examples appear in the Manual Chapter 11 (355-368).

    U.S. Congressional document
    For legislative materials such as hearings, provide: title, session of Congress, and year held. URL (optional) 

    Note that title of hearing is italicized.

     

    U.S. Unenacted federal bill - retrieved through Congress.gov
    For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, H.R. or S. number, session of Congress, and year introduced. URL (optional)

    Note that no part of reference entry is italicized.

     

    U.S. Enacted federal law 

      [example forthcoming]


       



      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

    Federal Court Decision. Note that no part of reference entry is italicized.

     

    • Hornback v. U.S., 601 F.3d 1382 (Fed. Cir. 2010).

       


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:
    • United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974).


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

    Michigan legislative document
    For legislative materials such as hearings, provide title, Congress, session, and year.

    Note that title of hearing is italicized.

    • [forthcoming]


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    Unenacted State of Michigan bill - retrieved through http://www.legislature.mi.gov
    (other states are similar--see Bluebook for format). Note that no part of reference entry is italicized.

    For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, H.R. or S. number, session of Congress, and year introduced. URL (optional)

    Note that no part of reference entry is italicized.

    • A bill to provide for the official time followed in this state; and to provide for the elimination of daylight savings time in this state. H.B. 4303, 100th Leg., Reg. Sess. (Mich. 2019). http://legislature.mi.gov/doc.aspx?2019-HB-4303


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    Michigan Code, specifically Revised School Code (1976)

     

    Adapting the example which appears in the APA Manual, 7th ed. p. 363 and The Bluebook.

    Information as it appears online from the State of Michigan Legislative Council:

    380.1280a Specialized or alternative school or program.

    Sec. 1280a.

       The board of a school district or intermediate school district that operates or participates in a consortium that operates an alternative educational program pursuant to section 1301, a vocational-technical skills center or other separate vocational education program, or any other type of specialized or alternative school or program shall ensure that the requirements of sections 1204a, 1277a, 1278, and 1280 are met for each of those schools or programs.

    History: Add. 1993, Act 335, Imd. Eff. Dec. 31, 1993
    Popular Name: Act 451


    APA Reference example:

    Michigan Revised School Code Act, 451 M.C.L. §380.1280a (1976 & 1993). http://legislature.mi.gov/doc.aspx?mcl-380-1280a

    APA In-text citation examples:

    (Michigan Revised School Code Act, 1976 & 1993)

    Michigan Revised School Code Act of 1976 and 1993

    Michigan Revised School Code Act (1976 & 1993)


    Notes:

    1. All of your references from the Revised School Code will begin with:

      Michigan Revised School Code Act, 451 M.C.L. §380.
       
    2. Rest of reference is the specific section or section range,
      followed by (1976 &
      and latest year indicated from the source History line.
       
    3. When referencing/citing laws/statutes/codes, nothing is italicized in either the reference or in-text citation. However, APA rules are different when citing court cases.

     

    Paper in proceedings published regularly (format similar to journal article)

    • Tavits, M., & Pérez, E. O. (2019). Language influences mass opinion toward gender and LGBT equality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(34), 16781–16786. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1908156116

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Tavits & Pérez, 2019)
      Narrative: Tavits and Pérez (2019)
      Direct quote: (Tavits & Pérez, 2019, p. 16782)

    Paper published in book form of Proceedings, 3 authors (format similar to a chapter in an edited book). Capitalize the name of the symposium/conference.

    • Barlow, D. H., Chorpita, B. F., & Turovsky, J. (1996). Fear, panic, anxiety, and disorders of emotion. In D. A. Hope (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 43. Perspectives on anxiety, panic, and fear (pp. 251-328). University of Nebraska Press.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Barlow et al., 1996)
      Narrative: Barlow et al. (1996)
      Direct quote: (Barlow et al., 1996, p. 251)

    Paper in proceedings published regularly, 21 or more authors (format similar to journal article) (example had 99 authors)

    • Frantz, L. A. F., Haile, J., Lin, A. T., Scheu, A., Geörg, C., Benecke, N., Alexander, M., Linderholm, A., Mullin, V. E., Daly, K. G., Battista, V. M., Price, M., Gron, K. J., Alexandri, P., Arbogast, R.-M., Arbuckle, B., Bӑlӑşescu, A., Barnett, R., Bartosiewicz, L., … Larson, G. (2019). Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(35), 17231–17238. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1901169116

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Frantz et al., 2019)
      Narrative: Frantz et al. (2019)
      Direct quote: (Frantz et al., 2019, p. 17236)

    Paper presentation

    • Clumpner, K. E. (2007, April 18-20). NMUmaniTies: An interdisciplinary blog for liaisons [Paper presentation]. Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians Annual Meeting, Wisconsin Dells, WI, United States.

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Clumpner, 2007)
      Narrative: Clumpner (2007)
      Direct quote: (Clumpner, 2007, Slide 3)

    Poster presentation

    • Raspe, P. D., & Lasker, G. W. (1991, April 2-6). Relationship among given names in the Scilly Isles [Poster presentation]. American Association of Physical Anthropologists Annual Meeting, Milwaukee, WI, United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330340505

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Raspe & Lasker, 1991)
      Narrative: Raspe and Lasker (1991)
      Direct quote: (Raspe & Lasker, 1991, p. 149)

    When content is only available (limited circulation) from an online source (such as monographs provided in ERIC), provide the name of the database in the reference (Sections 9.30, & 10.8 example # 74). Provide the full url of the PDF, not address of the entry in the ERIC database.

    Report

    • Brewster, C., & Railsback, J. (2002). Full-day kindergarten: Exploring an option for extended learning (ED472733). ERIC. https://files.eric.ed.gov./fulltext/ED472733.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Brewster & Railsback, 2002)
      Narrative: Brewster and Railsback (2002)
      Direct quote: (Brewster & Railsback, 2002, p. 7)


    ERIC Digest 

    • Schuetz, P. (2000). Successful collaborations between high schools and community colleges. ERIC Digest (ED451856). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED451856.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Schuetz, 2000)
      Narrative: Schuetz (2000)
      Direct quote: (Schuetz, 2000, p. 3)


    Speeches/Meeting Papers - Paper presentation

    • Shaw, C. L. M. (1997, November 19-23). Customer satisfaction: Communication training and the help-desk hot-line [Paper presentation] (ED416553). National Communication Association 83rd Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, United States. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED416553.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Shaw, 1997)
      Narrative: Shaw (1997)
      Direct quote: (Shaw, 1997, p. 5)


    Speeches/Meeting Papers - Published in proceedings

    • Lucas, L. A. (1998, June 11). Issues in the creation and coordination of an academic computing help desk (ED425722). In Proceedings of the ASCUE Summer Conference [Paper presentation] (pp. 87-92). Association of Small Computer Users in Education 31st Annual Conference, North Myrtle Beach, SC, United States. ERIC. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425722.pdf

      How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical: (Lucas, 1998)
      Narrative: Lucas (1998)
      Direct quote: (Lucas, 1998, p. 89)

    Book

    • Barker, C. L., & Searchwell, C. J. (2000). Writing year-end teacher improvement plans--right now!! The principal's time-saving reference guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. (ED450448)


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

    Report - available from ERIC (microfiche-only, but without report number)

    • Morgan, D. R. (1982). Desegregating public schools: A handbook for local officials. Norman, OK: Bureau of Government Research, University of Oklahoma. (ED215005)


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

    Speeches/Meeting Papers - Unpublished presentation (microfiche-only)

    • Kondrick, L. C., & Franklin, K. K. (2003). A conceptual model for a task analysis of methods in action research design. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Biloxi, MS. (ED482468)


    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

    In the 7th edition of APA Style, the definition of what is considered a published thesis or dissertation has changed.

    This type of work is considered "unpublished" if it was retrieved directly from the college or university in print form.

    This type of work is considered "published" if it was retrieved from a database (such as ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global), university archives, or personal webpage (Section 10.6).

    For Published works, include

    publication number (if applicable)
    type of work & institution name in square brackets [  ]
    name of source holding online work
    and for works published online but not in a database: URL


    Master's thesis from a database (Published). 

    • Smith-LaBrash, S. (2010). Influence of learning styles, gender, self-rated computer experience, and age on preference for computer-assisted learning versus traditional learning (Publication No. 1483122) [Master's thesis, Northern Michigan University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. 



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    Master's thesis published online (not in a database) from an institutional repository (sometimes referred to as a Commons, or has ETD/handle in url). Provide name of repository.

    • Taylor, Janelle N. (2018). Measuring the success of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan students at a nonmetropolitan university [Master's thesis, Northern Michigan University]. NMU Commons. https://commons.nmu.edu/theses/564/



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

     

    Unpublished Master's thesis (acquired in print form)

    • Paulosky, K. A. (1997). Knowledge and attitudes of pain and activities of nurse administrators [Unpublished master's thesis]. Northern Michigan University.



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    In the 7th edition of APA Style, the definition of what is considered a published thesis or dissertation has changed.

    This type of work is considered "unpublished" if it was retrieved directly from the college or university in print form.

    This type of work is considered "published" if it was retrieved from a database (such as ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global), university archives, or personal webpage (Section 10.6).

    For Published works, include

    publication number (if applicable)
    type of work & institution name in square brackets [  ]
    name of source holding online work
    and for works published online but not in a database: URL

     

     

    Doctoral dissertation from a database (Published)

    • Richardson, L. S. (2010). Elementary teachers' perceptions of grade retention (Publication No. 3416301) [Doctoral dissertation, The University of Southern Mississippi]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

     

    Doctoral Dissertation Published online (not in a database) from an institutional repository (sometimes referred to as a Commons, or has ETD/handle in url). Provide name of repository.

    • Naylor, S. M. (2007). Understanding graduate student constructs for finding meaning in the advising experience: A qualitative case study of incoming master's of social work students [Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina Greensboro]. NC Docs. http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/umi-uncg-1429.pdf



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

    Unpublished Doctoral dissertation (acquired in print form)

    • Puncochar, J. M. (1996). Confidence in individual and group decision-making: When two heads are worse than one [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Minnesota.



    •  
    • How to cite this work in-text:
      Parenthetical:
      Narrative:
      Direct quote:

     

     

    Graphic representation of data derived from a data set / data bank
    When a figure (graph, map, chart, etc.) or table is generated/created from a data set/data bank available online, use the following to reference the data set. Since data sets/banks are frequently updated, provide the URL of the initial web page used to generate the graphic. Note to also properly caption & cite the resulting graphic or table. See examples of how to caption & cite tables & figures from another tab on this APA style guide.
     

    The APA Manual 7th ed. indicates that personal communications include letters, memos, telephone conversations, some electronic communications (e.g., e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), etc. Basically, "works that cannot be recovered by readers" (Section 8.9, p. 260). 

    In the new edition, there is extensive discussion about citing "Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples" (pp. 260-261).

    Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:

         Narrative citation: J. Campbell (personal communication, October 13, 2019). 

         Parenthetical citation: (L. Brothen, personal communication, June 6, 2004).

    Basic In-text citation styles

     

    From Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 266), by the American Psychological Association, 2020 (https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000). Copyright 2020 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.

    MLA Style to APA Style References (7th Edition)

    Creating References
    Transitioning from MLA Style (Handbook, 8th ed., 2016)
    to
    APA Style 7th edition (Publication Manual, 7th ed., 2020) 

    Created by Prof. Mike Strahan
    Updated 1/16/2020

    Found the following work while searching one of the Library databases, and retrieved online through direct subscription with publisher.

    Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities
    Hugh W. Catts, Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges and Katherin Mendoza
    Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 42, No. 2, 163-176 (2009). doi:10.1177/0022219408326219
     

    MLA Works Cited entry (retrieved from publisher web site):

    Catts, Hugh W., Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges 

              and Katherin Mendoza. "Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and

              Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities." Journal of Learning

              Disabilities, vol. 42, no. 2, March/April 2009, pp. 163-176. doi:10.1177/0022219408326219. 

    [Note that if we had found the full-text of this article in an online database, the name of the database
    in italics would be inserted between the page numbers and DOI.]
     

    APA Reference entry 7th edition. DOI assigned. Must include issue number when provided:

    Catts, H. W., Petscher, Y., Schatschneider, C., Bridges, M. S., & Mendoza, K. (2009).

              Floor effects associated with universal screening and their impact on the early

              identification of reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 163-176. 

              https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219408326219

     

    When using 7th edition style, here is how to cite in-text:

    Parenthetical: (Catts et al., 2009)

    Narrative: Catts et al. (2009)

    Direct quote: (Catts et al., 2009, p. 163)

     

    Explanation of APA reference components

     

    Reference
    Section
    APA format & notes
    Author

    Use last name, first and middle initials. For works with one author, list it. For works with two authors, list both and separate by an ampersand ( & ).

    New for 7th edition: For works with 3 thru 20 authors, list all of them, and add an ampersand (&) before the last author. For works with 21 or more authors list first 19, an ellipse (three dots ... ) then last author. These are major changes from APA Style 6th edition guidelines.

    Publication Year For journal articles, only provide the year. For magazine articles, include year followed by month. For example: (2008, June). For newspaper articles, provide: year, month, and day (2008, July 10).
    Article Title Only capitalize first letter of first word for title and subtitle. Also capitalize proper names, acronyms, & abbreviations. Unlike MLA, no quotation marks.
    Journal Title Capitalize all words except articles. Entire title in italics.
    Volume Number

    Italics

    If the publication year is also used for the volume number, provide that year in the volume position of the reference.

    Issue Number

    New for 7th edition: When issue number is provided, it must be included in the reference.

    Page Numbers

    Include all page numbers where article appears. Do not use sloppy format, such as 163-76; instead write complete range: 163-176.

    New for 7th edition: If journal is published online-only and articles  are numbered or assigned an eLocator, provide that number preceded by the word: Article

    Examples:

    Article 55

    Article e4567

    DOI - Digital Object Identifier

    Unique number assigned to primarily journal articles, and some 
    e-books and e-book chapters.

    Note that not all articles are assigned a DOI, especially popular magazine and newspaper articles. The DOI always begins with 10 followed by a period and four digits and a slash. Example: 10.1177/

    Remaining part of identifier may be all numbers, all letters, or combination of letters and numbers.

    APA style 7th edition continues with the following format of the DOI to begin with https://doi.org/ 
    followed by the assigned DOI. 

    Example: https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2017.1391324

    Researchers & students are expected to follow the current standard format for the DOI in their APA references.

     

    Creating References in APA Style 7th edition (Publication Manual, 7th Edition, 2020) 

    Created by Professor Mike Strahan
    Updated 1/16/2020

    Found the following work while searching one of the Library databases, and retrieved online through direct subscription with publisher.

    Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities
    Hugh W. Catts, Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges and Katherin Mendoza
    Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 42, No. 2, 163-176 (2009). doi:10.1177/0022219408326219

     

    APA Reference entry 7th edition. DOI assigned. Must include issue number when provided.

    Catts, H. W., Petscher, Y., Schatschneider, C., Bridges, M. S., & Mendoza, K. (2009).

              Floor effects associated with universal screening and their impact on the early

              identification of reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 163-176. 

              https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219408326219

     

    When using 7th edition style, here is how to cite in-text:

    Parenthetical: (Catts et al., 2009)

    Narrative: Catts et al. (2009)

    Direct quote: (Catts et al., 2009, p. 163)

     

    Explanation of APA reference components

     

    Reference
    Section
    APA format & notes
    Author

    Use last name, first and middle initials. For works with one author, list it. For works with two authors, list both and separate by an ampersand ( & ).

    New for 7th edition: For works with 3 thru 20 authors, list all of them, and add an ampersand (&) before the last author. For works with 21 or more authors list first 19, an ellipse (three dots ... ) then last author. These are major changes from APA Style 6th edition guidelines.

    Publication Year For journal articles, only provide the year. For magazine articles, include year followed by month. For example: (2008, June). For newspaper articles, provide: year, month, and day (2008, July 10).
    Article Title Only capitalize first letter of first word for title and subtitle. Also capitalize proper names, acronyms, & abbreviations. Unlike MLA, no quotation marks.
    Journal Title Capitalize all words except articles. Entire title in italics.
    Volume Number

    Italics

    If the publication year is also used for the volume number, provide that year in the volume position of the reference.

    Issue Number

    New for 7th edition: When issue number is provided, it must be included in the reference.

    Page Numbers

    Include all page numbers where article appears. Do not use sloppy format, such as 163-76; instead write complete range: 163-176.

    New for 7th edition: If journal is published online-only and articles  are numbered or assigned an eLocator, provide that number preceded by the word: Article

    Examples:

    Article 55

    Article e4567

    DOI - Digital Object Identifier

    Unique number assigned to primarily journal articles, and some 
    e-books and e-book chapters.

    Note that not all articles are assigned a DOI, especially popular magazine and newspaper articles. The DOI always begins with 10 followed by a period and four digits and a slash. Example: 10.1177/

    Remaining part of identifier may be all numbers, all letters, or combination of letters and numbers.

    APA style 7th edition continues with the following format of the DOI to begin with https://doi.org/ 
    followed by the assigned DOI. 

    Example: https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2017.1391324

    Researchers & students are expected to follow the current standard format for the DOI in their APA references.

     

    APA Style 7th edition: Articles assigned a DOI (2020; HD) (6:00)
    Shows how to reference & cite in-text articles assigned a DOI (digital object identifier). Includes print, online, & online-only journal article examples.

    APA style 7th edition: Articles not assigned a DOI (2020; HD) (6:55)
    Shows how to reference & cite in-text articles which were NOT assigned a DOI (digital object identifier). Includes articles retrieved from most academic research databases or print version.

    APA Style 7th edition: Books (2020; HD) (6:03)
    Shows how to reference & cite in-text books. Includes print, online, assigned a DOI, and ebook accessed directly from the publisher (textbook example).

    APA Style 7th edition: Course Materials (2020; HD) (3:01)
    Shows how to reference & cite in-text course materials.

    APA Style 7th edition: Webpages (2020; HD) (4:16)
    shows how to reference & cite in-text webpages. Includes authored by individual, organization, & government agencies.

    APA Style 7th edition: Video materials (2020; HD) (3:42)
    Shows how to reference & cite in-text videos. Includes YouTube & films on DVD.

    APA Style 7th edition: How to locate & reference an ebook through NMU Library (9:18)
    Shows how to access an ebook through NMU Library and then create a reference & in-text citation using APA style 7th edition.

    APA Style 7th edition: How-to reference articles with DOIs (comprehensive)
    This video shows how to format various types of journal articles assigned a DOI, and how to format in-text citations for each of these. Examples include articles with two individual authors, three thru 20 authors, 21 or greater authors, articles published in online-only journals which use article/document/eLocator number in place of page numbers, journals which use publication year as volume number, individuals with organizations as authors, articles retrieved from Cochrane database, and articles published in advance of print.

    APA Style 7th edition: How-to reference books (comprehensive)
    This video shows how to format various types of books without DOIs; with assigned DOIs; textbooks accessed directly from the publisher; with authors; with editors; authored chapters in edited books; authored chapters in books created by authors; contributors who wrote chapters; and where author and publisher are the same.

    HANDOUTS AND GUIDES FOR 7TH EDITION

    The following are instructional aids for the seventh edition Publication Manual. They can be used in homes, classrooms, libraries, or anywhere you are learning or teaching APA Style. 

    Sample Papers (student & professional) 

    IMPORTANT:

    Instructors Rebecca Estelle & Lesli Williams require that when students in NMU Deaf Studies courses are paraphrasing information in their papers, etc., they must include the page number. Note that APA Style rule requires page number included when directly quoting.

    For example: 

    When is the word deaf capitalized (Moore & Levitan, 2016, p. 259) ?

    Rebecca & Lesli are applying the APA rule (both 6th and 7th editions) which states to include the page number "when it would help interested readers locate the relevant passage within a long or complex work (e.g., a book)."

     

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