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Education: Undergraduate

How-to Video: Professor Strahan introduces library resources & services for Education students

Starting from within EduCat, provides brief introduction to access key Education NMU Library Resources including APA style tools, and also how to contact Professor Strahan (Library Liaison to SELPS) for assistance.

Mike @ Reference

Professor Mike Strahan is available at Reference during Fall 2019 semester:

Mondays:   12-1

Tuesdays:   3-5

Wednesdays:   3-5

Thursdays:   12-1

Fridays:   3-5

MLA Style to APA Style References

Creating References
Transitioning from MLA Style (Handbook, 8th ed., 2016)
to
APA Style (Publication Manual, 6th Edition, 2010, second printing or later; 
APA Guide to Electronic References, 2012; official APA style blog) 

Created by Prof. Mike Strahan
Updated 8/24/2019

Found the following work while searching ERIC, and retrieved online after clicking
Get this for me [NMU Olson Library]

Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities
Hugh W. Catts, Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges and Katherin Mendoza
Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 42, No. 2, 163-176 (2009)

MLA Works Cited entry (retrieved from publisher web site):

Catts, Hugh W., Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges 

          and Katherin Mendoza. "Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and

          Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities." Journal of Learning

          Disabilities, vol. 42, no. 2, March/April 2009, pp. 163-176. doi:10.1177/0022219408326219. 

[Note that if we had found the full-text of this article in an online database, the name of the database
in italics would be inserted between the page numbers and DOI.]

APA Reference entry, DOI assigned:

Catts, H. W., Petscher, Y., Schatschneider, C., Bridges, M. S., & Mendoza, K. (2009).

          Floor effects associated with universal screening and their impact on the early

          identification of reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 163-176. 

          https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219408326219

 

Explanation of APA reference components

 

Reference
Section
APA format & notes
Author Use last name, first and middle initials. Separate two or last two authors by an ampersand (&). If work has more than 7 authors, list first 6, then three dots ... then last author. This is a major change from previous APA guidelines.
Publication Year For journal articles, only provide the year. For magazine articles, include year followed by month. For example: (2008, June).
Article Title Only capitalize first letter of first word for title and subtitle. Also capitalize proper names, acronyms, & abbreviations. Unlike MLA, no quotation marks.
Journal Title Capitalize all words except articles. Entire title in italics.
Volume Number Italics
Issue Number

Most scholarly/research journals use continuous pagination; that is, the first issue of a volume begins with page 1, and the page numbers continue until the end of the last issue in the volume.

However, in the online environment, many researchers are not familiar enough with the journal to know whether each issue is separately paginated; that is, each issue begins with page 1.

Therefore, it is recommended researchers include the issue number within parentheses (not italics) immediately following the volume number: 55(6)

Page Numbers

Include all page numbers where article appears. Do not use sloppy format, such as 163-76; instead write complete range: 163-176.

If journal is published online-only and articles are numbered, use pagination indicated in PDF form of article. Example: 1-12.

DOI - Digital Object Identifier

Unique number assigned to primarily journal articles, and some 
e-books and e-book chapters.

Note that not all articles are assigned a DOI, especially popular magazine and newspaper articles. The DOI always begins with 10 followed by a period and four digits and a slash. Example: 10.1177/

Remaining part of identifier may be all numbers, all letters, or combination of letters and numbers.

Beginning March 1, 2017, APA changed the format of the DOI to begin with https://doi.org/ 
followed by the assigned DOI. 

Even though some databases and journals may not use the current format, researchers & students are expected to follow the current standard format in their APA references.

 

APA Style

(This APA style guide last revised: 10/9/19)

The NEW 7th edition (© 2020) APA style Manual was released Oct. 1, 2019, along with their
new official APA style Blog.

Coming soon to this guide: APA Style 7th ed. examples.

Please see tabs indicating "7th ed." for Manual Introduction and Instructional Aids for transitioning to new style as reflected in the Manual.

Current examples reflect the 6th edition, 2nd printing (© 2010) of the Publication ManualAPA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed. (© 2012); and APA Style Blog 6th Edition Archive 

 

NMU will switch to 7th edition beginning January 2020 with the winter semester. However, the 6th edition examples will remain available on this guide through August 2020 in order to accommodate graduate student theses & dissertations.

Note: Enforcement of APA style is up to course instructor or publication editor.

Note that examples below reflect APA's change to DOI format on March 1, 2017.

For one article:

  1. Check the first page of article (usually in smaller print near journal logo, copyright, or near author email address).
  2. If not on article, check database record/abstract (sometimes labeled as DOI). CINAHL began adding DOI's in 2009.
  3. If DOI does not appear on either article or in database, search the Cross/Ref DOI Lookup using article author/title


For list of references:

  1. Create an account at Cross/Ref. After you submit your request, you will receive an e-mail. Please click on the provided link to activate your account.
  2. Next, go to Simple Text Query Form and enter your e-mail address, then copy & paste entire reference list into box. Click submit.


An individual DOI may be verified/searched:
Resolve a DOI name

Do steps in order:

  1. Look for web address on the article.
  2. Type complete journal title in web browser address bar.
  3. Check database record.
  4. Search journal title in Ulrich's (works great for journal title with common words).

NOTES: Journal titles which begin with BMC or other online-only journals often use document numbers instead of issue numbers, as in this example in volume 15: 15:366. However, do not use the document number in your reference; instead, provide the volume number followed by page numbers indicated on PDF. See third example below.

Please verify DOI format with journal author guidelines before submission.

Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)

  • Wilens, T. E., & Biederman, J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 580-588.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776

Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume), more than seven authors

  • Caselli, D., Carraro, F., Castagnola, E., Ziino, O., Frenos, S., Milano, G. M., . . . Aric, M. (2010). Morbidity of pandemic H1N1 influenza in children with cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 55, 226-228. https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22619

Journal Article which provides a volume number and document number instead of an issue number on the article itself (example: 15:366), and each article in the volume usually begins with page number 1.

  • Norris, E., Shelton, N., Dunsmuir, S., Duke-Williams, O., & Stamatakis, E. (2015). Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: A pilot study. BMC Public Health, 15, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1706-5

Journal Article (paginated by issue)

  • Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. https://doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10

Cochrane Database Report retrieved from Cochrane Library

  • Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

Advance online article (published online before print; may or may not include pagination; indicate initial page number or range if available).

  • Jung, T. I., Hoffmann, F., Glaeske, G., & Felsenberg, D. (2009). Disease-specific risk for an osteonecrosis of the jaw under bisphosphonate therapy. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00432-009-0662-9

 

Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)

  • Arakji, R. Y., & Lang, K. R. (2008). Avatar business value analysis: A method for the evaluation of business value creation in virtual commerce. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 9, 207-218. Retrieved from https://www.csulb.edu/journals/jecr

Journal Article (paginated by issue)

  • Williams, J. (2008). The victims of crime. Sociology Review, 17(4), 30-32. Retrieved from https://www.philipallan.co.uk/sociologyreview/index.htm

Journal Article (paginated by issue), more than seven authors

  • Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Al Otaiba, S., Thompson, A., Yen, L., McMaster, K. N., . . . Yang, N. J. (2001). K-PALS: Helping kindergartners with reading readiness: Teachers and researchers in partnerships. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(4), 76-80. Retrieved from https://www.cec.sped.org/content/navigationmenu/publications2/teachingexceptionalchildren

Magazine Article (page numbers appear on article)

  • Bower, B. (2008, Feb. 9). Dawn of the city: Excavations prompt a revolution in thinking about the earliest cities. Science News, 173(6), 90-92. Retrieved from https://www.sciencenewsmagazine.org

Newspaper Article (no page number provided)

  • Heinlein, G. (2007, July 24). Michigan smoking ban takes big step. Detroit News. Retrieved from https://www.detnews.com

Newsletter article, retrieved from publisher web site

Unless newsletter article is paginated, exclude pages numbers.

  • Dowd, N., O'Donnell, P., & Snoek-Brown, J. (2007, Winter). WeLead and academic libraries: A bright future. Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians WAAL Newsletter, 24(1). Retrieved from https://www.wla.lib.wi.us/waal/newsletter/241.html#welead

Provide holding database home or entry page URL. 

Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)

  • Billson, C. J. (1892). The Easter hare. Folklore, 3, 441-466. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Langdon, S. W., & Preble, W. (2008). The relationship between levels of perceived respect and bullying in 5th through 12th graders. Adolescence, 43, 485-503. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com

Article in a journal

  • Darling-Hammond, L., & Falk, B. (1997). Using standards and assessments to support student learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 79(3), 190-199.

Article in a Popular Magazine

  • Caloyianis, N. (1998, September). Greenland sharks. National Geographic, 194(3), 60-71.

Article in a Newspaper (Discontinuous pages)

  • Von Drehle, D. (2000, January 15). Russians unveil new security plan. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A21.

(Informally Published or Self-archived Work, Manual, p. 212) 

Individual web page

Since web pages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, etc. Note that proper names and acronyms are capitalized. Date of retrieval is included because "the source material may change over time" (Manual, p. 192, and apastyle.org).

IMPORTANT NOTE: the web page title is not italicized because APA considers web pages informal publications. If the web page is also available as an online document/report (for example in PDF), please download that report, cite in-text appropriately, and use the online report format instead (click here to jump to those examples).

Web page: Individual person(s) as author(s) (note capitalization of proper names, & when persons are authors you must include name of website)

  • Lewis, O., & Redish, L. (2011). Native American tribes of Wisconsin. Retrieved April 19, 2012, from the Native Languages of the Americas website: http://www.native-languages.org/wisconsin.htm

Web page: Group of people as authors: Mayo Clinic Staff (if citing more than 1 section, use "Print" URL)

  • Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved October 1, 2014, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gestational-diabetes/basics/definition/con-20014854?p=1

Web page: Organization as author, shows update year

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Diabetes & pregnancy. Retrieved October 1, 2014, fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/Features/DiabetesPregnancy/

Web page: Organization as author, no update year (note capitalization of proper names)

  • Milwaukee Public Museum. (n.d.). Stockbridge-Munsee history. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-158.html

Note regarding citing an entire web site source

When discussing an entire web site (as opposed to a specific page on the web site), an entry does not appear in the reference list, but is cited within text as shown in the following sample sentence:
The International Council of Museums web site provides many links to museums, codes of ethics, and the museum profession (http://www.icom.org/).

Photographs, drawings, etc. copied or adapted from a Web Page

Notes: APA Manual (p. 192) states: "Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time." Since web page content often changes, provide the date of retrieval. Also, if you must split the URL between two lines, do so before a slash or a dash, but do not split https:// 

Following illustration title, insert type of medium in square brackets. Illustration types include diagram, photograph, painting, drawing, bronze sculpture, etc.

  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2012). Dermal absorption [Diagram]. Retrieved March 11, 2013, from https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/skin

If illustration does not have a name/title, insert description including type of medium in square brackets following year. This example does not have a publication date.

  • Florida Hospital. (n.d.). [Untitled photograph of a woman.] Retrieved March 11, 2013, from https://www.changeyourlifechallenge.org/news/hospital-enhances-rehab-program-with-new-experia
    -equipment-for-vitalstim-therapy
Books & Reports, retrieved online source

Electronic version of print book, retrieved from STAT!Ref (Use same URL for all STAT!Ref entries)

  • Nieswiadomy, R. M. (2008). Foundations of nursing research (5th ed.) [STAT!Ref version]. Retrieved from http://online.statref.com

Electronic version of print book, retrieved from EBSCO eBook Collection (Use same URL for all EBSCO entries)

  • Vogel, C. G. (1999). Legends of landforms: Native American lore and the geology of the land. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com

Electronic version of print book, retrieved from ProQuest Ebook Central / Academic Complete (use same URL for all entries)

  • Chandler, C. K. (2011). Animal assisted therapy in counseling. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com

Electronic version of print book, freely available, organization as author

  • American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Retrieved fromhttps://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

Electronic version of print book, freely available through National Academies Press (some indexed in PubMed), organization as author (DOI assigned)

  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2013). Human genome editing: Science, ethics, and governance.http://doi.org/10.17226/24623

Electronic version of print book, retrieved from SpringerLink (DOI assigned)

  • Valencia, C. A., Pervaiz, M. A., Husami, A., Qian, Y., & Zhang, K. (2013). Next generation sequencing technologies in medical genetics. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9032-6

Electronic book - direct link unavailable or URL leads to information on how to obtain the item.
Note use of "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from"

  • Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2007). Diversity in early care and education: Honoring differences. Available from http://mhprofessional.com/product.php?isbn=007722289X

Electronic version of book chapter from an edited book

  • Symonds, P. M. (1958). Human drives. In C. L. Stacey & M. DeMartino (Eds.), Understanding human motivation (pp. 11-22). https://doi.org/10.1037/11305-002

Report/Document available on the web, authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number

  • Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality website: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb17.jsp

Report/Document available on the web, no author identified, no publication date (provide title first)

  • Elementary school math instruction questionnaire results. Most significantly improved schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sharingsuccess.org/code/highperf/2002-03/es_math/msi/index.htm

Report/Document available on the web, authored by a nongovernmental organization, no publication date

  • Accreditation Commission for Programs in Hospitality Administration. (n.d.). Handbook of accreditation. Retrieved from http://www.acpha-cahm.org/forms/acpha/acphahandbook04.pdf

Report/Document from institutional archive or university department web site

  • Trapp, Y. U. (2005). Multiple intelligences: The learning process in our students. Retrieved from Yale University, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute website: http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2001/6/01.06.10.x.html
Books, retrieved print source

Book, no author or editor

  • Place title in the author's position; alphabetize on reference list by the first significant word in the title; cite in text using a few words of the title, or the whole title if it is short, in place of the author's name.

Nursing 2016 drug handbook (36th ed.). (2016). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.


Book, one author

  • McKibben, B. (1992). The age of missing information. New York, NY: Random House.

Book, multiple authors

  • Larson, G. W., Ellis, D. C., & Rivers, P. C. (1984). Essentials of chemical dependency counseling. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Edited book (editor in place of author)

  • Inness, S. A. (Ed.). (1998). Delinquents and debutantes: Twentieth-century American girls' cultures. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Book, subsequent edition (2nd, 3rd, etc.)

  • Stanfield, P., Cross, N., & Hui, Y. H. (2012). Introduction to the health professions (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Article or chapter in a book where each chapter is written by a Contributor, and book has authors (not editors), subsequent edition

  • Landis, C. A., & Heitkemper, M. M. (2011). Sleep and sleep disorders. In S. L. Lewis, S. R. Dirksen, M. M. Heitkemper, L. Bucher, & I. M. Camera, Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (8th ed., pp. 112-125). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Article or chapter a book where each chapter is written by author(s), and publisher is book author (not editor), subsequent edition

  • Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The five practices of exemplary leadership. In Jossey-Bass, The Jossey-Bass reader on educational leadership (2nd ed., rev. ed., pp. 63-72). San Francisco, CA: Author.

Report from a private organization (author & publisher same)

  • National League for Nursing. (1990). Self-study report for community health organizations (Pub. No. 21-2329). New York, NY: Author.

Article or chapter in an edited book (editors indicated)

  • Hartley, J. T., Harker, J. O., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved online, no entry author

  • Boss brass. (2009). In H. Kallmann & G. Potvin (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=U1ARTU0000367

Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved from online, entry has author name

  • Gersten, T. (2014). Hemophilia B. In National Library of Medicine, A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000539.htm

Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved from STAT!Ref online, no entry author

  • Vernix caseosa. (2009). In D. Venes (Ed.), Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary (21st ed.) [STAT!Ref version]. Retrieved from http://online.statref.com

Entry in an Encyclopedia, electronic version of print book, entry author, multi-volume, direct link unavailable, retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library

  • Hanegraaff, W. (2005). New Age movement. In L. Jones (Ed.), Encyclopedia of religion (2nd ed., Vol. 10, pp. 6495-6500). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps

Definition Entry in a general Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no date, no editor. Note: When no entry author is provided, move name of word into author position.

  • Diabetes. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diabetes

Entry in a Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no editor

  • Terrorism. (2009). In DOD dictionary of military and associated terms. Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/data/t/7591.html

Entry in an encyclopedia
This includes both general and specialized encyclopedias. If an entry does not have a byline, begin the reference with the entry title and publication date.
 

  • Moore, C. (1991). Mass Spectrometry. In Encyclopedia of chemical technology (4th ed.) (Vol. 15, pp. 1071-1094). New York, NY: Wiley.

Entry in Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY)
Title of the review and authorship appears in italics at the beginning of the review narrative (example provided below). Also, note that many entries published in MMY contain more than one review. Title of the test is capitalized.

Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments by NANCY L. ALLEN, Research Scientist, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ:

Allen, N. L. (1992). Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments. In J. J. Kramer & J. C. Conoley (Eds.), The eleventh mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute, University of Nebraska Press.

Working Paper, from electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, p. 206)

  • Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). Adaptability to online learning: Differences across types of students and academic subject areas (CCRC Working Paper No. 54). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Dissertations/Theses: Doctoral Dissertations, from electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, pp. 207-208)

  • Simon, C. E. (1995). Information retrieval techniques: The differences in cognitive strategies and search behaviors among graduate students in an academic library (Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Speeches/Meeting Papers - Published in proceedings, limited circulation, retrieved from ERIC database (Manual, p. 192 & p. 207)

  • Lucas, L. A. (1998). Issues in the creation and coordination of an academic computing help desk. Association of Small Computer Users in Education: Proceedings of the ASCUE Summer Conference, North Myrtle Beach, SC (pp. 87-92). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

ERIC Digest - Informally published or self-archived work, from ERIC (Manual, p. 212)

  • Schuetz, P. (2000). Successful collaborations between high schools and community colleges. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Dissertations/Theses: Master's Theses - Unpublished, from an electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, pp. 207-208)

  • Lopez, J. (2005). Characteristics of selected multilingual education programs from around the world: A review of the literature (Unpublished master's thesis). Dominican University of California, Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Report - from ERIC (Manual, p. 212)

  • Brewster, C., & Railsback, J. (2002). Full-day kindergarten: Exploring an option for extended learning. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Speeches/Meeting Papers - Unpublished presentation retrieved from ERIC (Manual, p. 206)

  • Shaw, C. L. M. (1997, November). Customer satisfaction: Communication training and the help-desk hot-line. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago, IL. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov

Book

  • Barker, C. L., & Searchwell, C. J. (2000). Writing year-end teacher improvement plans--right now!! The principal's time-saving reference guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. (ED450448)

Report - available from ERIC (microfiche-only, but without report number)

  • Morgan, D. R. (1982). Desegregating public schools: A handbook for local officials. Norman, OK: Bureau of Government Research, University of Oklahoma. (ED215005)

Speeches/Meeting Papers - Unpublished presentation (microfiche-only)

  • Kondrick, L. C., & Franklin, K. K. (2003). A conceptual model for a task analysis of methods in action research design. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Biloxi, MS. (ED482468)

Master's thesis from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database (written by NMU graduate student)

  • Smith-LaBrash, S. (2010). Influence of learning styles, gender, self-rated computer experience, and age on preference for computer-assisted learning versus traditional learning (Master's thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 1483122)

Doctoral Dissertation from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database

  • Richardson, L. S. (2010). Elementary teachers' perceptions of grade retention (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 3416301)

Doctoral Dissertation from a commercial database

  • Jackson, S. L. (2007). Program effectiveness of job readiness training: An analysis and evaluation of selected programs in St. Louis, Missouri (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ABI/INFORM database. (UMI No. 3241781)

Doctoral Dissertation from an institutional database (sometimes referred to as a Commons or has ETD in url)

  • Naylor, S. M. (2007). Understanding graduate student constructs for finding meaning in the advising experience: A qualitative case study of incoming master's of social work students (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://libres.uncg.edu/edocs/etd/

Master's Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation using persistent link/identifier or handle (sometimes called uri); the source address "handle.net" usually appears as part of the URL/URI.

  • Bartel, T. M. C. (2005). Factors associated with attachment in international adoption (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved fromhttp://hdl.handle.net/2097/131

Unpublished master's thesis (not indexed in Dissertation Express or Dissertation Abstracts/Master's Abstracts)

  • Paulosky, K. A. (1997). Knowledge and attitudes of pain and activities of nurse administrators (Unpublished master's thesis). Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI.

Note: According to Anne Gasque (Manual senior editor), since Dissertation Abstracts International is unavailable through NMU, researchers may substitute Dissertation Express information for DAI entry information.

Master's thesis indexed in Dissertation Express

  • McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's thesis). Available from Dissertation Express database. (UMI No. 1434728)

Doctoral dissertation indexed in Dissertation Express

  • Met, L. (1976). A study of the development and validation of a high school leadership training program: Evaluation of the student leadership program (Doctoral dissertation). Available from Dissertation Express database. (UMI No. 7703303)

Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI).

  • Gould, J. B. (1999). Symbolic speech: Legal mobilization and the rise of collegiate hate speech codes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(02), 533A.

Master's Thesis from a university outside of the United States, does not appear in Dissertation Express.

  • Hansen, C. F. (2007). Active support for instructors and students in an online learning environment (Master's thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada).

Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is included in name of university, then do not repeat the name (APA Manual, 6.30). Also, does not appear in Dissertation Express.

  • Ni, E. A.-L. (2012). New paradigms for active learning (Doctoral thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada).

Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is not included in name of university (include province postal abbreviation). Also, does not appear in Dissertation Express.

  • Watts, E. (1999). The freshman year experience, 1962-1990: An experiment in humanistic higher education (Doctoral thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada).

YouTube-type Video Blog Post

  • Goyen, A. (2007, February 22). Downtown Marquette dog sled races [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gW3CNCGGgTY

 

  • University of Chicago. (2007, December 12). European cartographers and the Ottoman world, 1500--1750 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xax5d4IKqrQ

Video Webcast from Television Series Single Episode

  • ABC News (Producer). (2007, September 21). Dying professor's lecture of a lifetime [Video webcast] [Television series episode]. In Good Morning America. Person of the Week. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/PersonOfWeek/Story?id=3633945&page=1

Audio Podcast

  • Charney, T. (Producer). (2007). Ashes to hope: Overcoming the Detroit riots. U.P. family still struggles to deal with pressure of '67 riot [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.michiganradio.org

Film / Movie / Motion Picture

  • Chrisman, S. (Producer & Director). (2003). Lumberjack life U.P. days of yore [DVD]. Available from http://wnmutv.nmu.edu/video_sales.php

U.S. Government executive document, authored by agency, with report number. Per the 9/25/18 APA Style blog post, APA recommends providing the specific government agency name for author, not the complete long form showing hierarchy of departments (although both forms are now correct).
Note that the agency publication number may appear on the web document or in the library catalog.

  • Environmental Protection Agency. (1999). Smog-Who does it hurt? What you need to know about ozone and your health (EPA Publication No. EPA-452/K-99-001). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health/smog.pdf

Government Report/Document, authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number.

  • Werner, C. A. (2011). The older population: 2010 (2010 Census Briefs, No. C2010BR-09). Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website: http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-09.pdf
     
  • Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality website: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb17.jsp

Government report, no document number

  • Food and Drug Administration. (2017). Food facts: Food and water safety during power outages and floods. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/ucm076962.pdf

Note: For government documents which do not have a personal author, APA recommends per the 9/25/18 APA Style blog post providing the specific government agency name for author, not the complete long form showing hierarchy of departments (although both forms are now correct). Also, not all U.S. government documents are published by GPO. As is the case for the second example below, when the publisher is the authoring agency, write: Author in the publisher's field.

U.S. Government executive document
Note that the agency publication number may appear on the document or in the online catalog.

  • Lindeman, D. A. (1984). Alzheimer's disease handbook (DHHS Publication No. OHDS 84-20813). Washington, DC: Government Publishing Office.

 

  • National Park Service. (2004). Pictured rocks national lakeshore: Final general management plan, wilderness study, environmental impact statement. Washington, DC: Author.

Michigan Government executive document
Michigan Department of Community Health. (2003). Michigan dementia plan summary: Reducing the burden of dementia in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Author.

For legislative and legal materials, APA uses the conventional legal citation format found in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. Guidelines and additional examples appear in the Manual on pp. 216-224.

Unenacted bills - Federal - retrieved through Thomas.gov
Unless you wish to provide parallel traditional and Internet references, it is not necessary to indicate where you retrieved bill text.

For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date.

Josh Miller HEARTS Act, S. 1197, 111th Cong. (2009).


Unenacted bills - State - retrieved through mi.gov
H.B. 4379, 95th Leg., Reg. Sess. (Mich. 2010).

Court Decision with record number identifier (Note source abbreviations - WestLaw: WL & Lexis-Nexis: LEXIS)
Note: If screen numbers are assigned, precede with an asterisk.
Hornback v. U.S., No. 03-5099, 2004 WL 68510, at *1 (C. A. Fed. Jan. 13, 2004).

U.S. Government Congressional document
For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date.

  • Charter schools: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, 105th Cong. 1 (1998).

Court decision (note that no part of entry is italicized)
United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974).

When course materials such as a syllabus, lecture notes, or presentation slides (e.g., PowerPoint) are available only from the course instructor, a classmate, or accessible only through course management systems such as NMU EduCat, Moodle, or Blackboard, then such content is considered Personal Communications (APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 2nd ed., p. 31).\

Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:

L. Flood (personal communication, April 7, 2014) 

(N. Gasiewicz, personal communication, March 26, 2014).

Paper in proceedings published regularly

  • Rissman, J., Greely, H. T., & Wagner, A. D. (2010). Detecting individual memories through the neural decoding of memory states and past experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107, 9849-9854. doi:10.1073/pnas.1001028107

Paper in proceedings published regularly, more than seven authors

  • Brem, S., Bach, S., Kucian, K., Guttorm, T. K., Martin, E., Lyytinen, H., ... Richardson, U. (2010). Brain sensitivity to print emerges when children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107, 7939-7944. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904402107

Conference presentation slides

  • Clumpner, K. E. (2007, April). Interdisciplinary blog for liaisons [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians, Wisconsin Dells, WI. Retrieved from http://www.wla.lib.wi.us/waal/conferences/2007/postconference/clumpner.pdf

Conference panel abstract

  • Freier, M., Bennett, T., & Riley, A. C. (2009, March). Gender, generation, and toxicity: The implications for academic libraries of gender and generational attitudes toward competition and workplace behavior. Panel presented at the ACRL 14th National Conference, Seattle, WA. Abstract retrieved from http://www.eshow2000.com/acrl/2009/e_pop_profiles.cfm?session=1&session_id=112539&class_id=113811

Published Proceedings
Capitalize the name of the symposium.

  • Barlow, D. H., Chorpita, B. F., & Turovsky, J. (1996). Fear, panic, anxiety, and disorders of emotion. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 43. Perspectives on Anxiety, Panic, and Fear (pp. 251-328). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Proceedings published regularly (format similar to periodicals)

  • Wassenaar, L. I., & Hobson, K. A. (1998). Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, 15436-15439.

Poster presented at conference

  • Raspe, P. D. (1991, April). Relationship among given names in the Scilly Isles. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Milwaukee, WI.

The APA Publication Manual (6th ed., p. 179) indicates that personal communications include letters, memos, telephone conversations, some electronic communications (e.g., e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), etc.

Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:

D. Walch (personal communication, January 19, 2007). 

(L. Brothen, personal communication, June 6, 2004).

Although referencing the full-text of an article is preferred, abstracts may be used as sources (Manual, p. 202).

Abstract found in database - Abstract as secondary source

  • Johnson, P. D. (1998). Rural stroke caregivers: A qualitative study of the positive and negative response to the caregiver role. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 5(3), 51-68. Abstract retrieved from CINAHL database. (Accession No. 1999045958)

Abstract found on publisher web site - Abstract as original source

  • Wang, J. L., Lesage, A., Schmitz, N., & Drapeau, A. (2008). The relationship between work stress and mental disorders in men and women: Findings from a population-based study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 42-47. Abstract retrieved from http://jech.bmj.com

Message posted to a Blog

  • Jacobson, J. (2009, November 8). Historic health reform bill passes but at a price: Women's groups have mixed reaction [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.rhrealitycheck.org/blog/2009/11/08/historic-health-reform-bill-passes-but-at-a-price-womens-groups-have-mixed-reaction

Message posted to an electronic mailing list (archived)

  • SaFeddern, T. (2004, May 10). Summary: EBN (nursing) resources [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from Nursing & Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association (NAHRS), http://listserv.kent.edu/cgi-bin/wa.exe?LIST=NAHRS

Graphic representation of data derived from a data set / data bank
When a figure (graph, map, chart, etc.) or table is generated/created from a data set/data bank available online, use the following to reference the data set. Since data sets/banks are frequently updated, provide the URL of the initial web page used to generate the graphic. Note to also properly caption & cite the resulting graphic or table. See examples of how to caption & cite tables & figures from another source.
 

  • National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2007). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Trends Data [Data file]. Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/index.html

APA How-to Videos

Note: prepared by Library faculty & staff

Basic Formatting

How-to video: APA Style - Customizing Microsoft Word settings
Shows how to customize Microsoft Word to become more APA style friendly. 

How-to APA style Video: Create Running Head & insert page numbers

Basic Explanation of APA Reference Components

** forthcoming **

APA Style: How-to videos on formatting references

Professor Strahan introduces the NMU Library APA Style guide (4:25)
Explores various parts of the new Library APA guide, including overview of resources available in each tab.

Reference for a Journal Article Assigned a DOI (digital object identifier)
How to format reference for a journal article assigned a DOI. 

Reference for a Web page
How to format reference for a web page authored by an organization (U.S. government agency).

Reference for an Authored Book
How to format a reference for a book written by authors, not editors.

How-to video: APA Style of a Sample Paper narrative
Shows how to format various types of in-text citations for APA style, & formatting numbers & percent. Includes single, multiple, & when to use et al.

How-to video: APA Style of a Sample Paper references
Explains how to format the following types of references in a sample paper according to APA Style: print book, web page, journal article assigned DOI, authored chapter in an edited book, and an article retrieved online but not assigned a DOI.

APA in Presentation Slides

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition)
How to Format APA-type Content in Presentation Slides 


Note: The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. 2010 does not specifically address formatting style content in presentation slides. 
The following recommendations are based on information provided in Chapter 5 of the Manual, the APA Style Blog, and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed., 2012. Since space is limited on slides, use single line spacing in all cases (including references).


INSERTING & CAPTIONING ILLUSTRATIONS (images, pictures, etc.) retrieved from a web page

After inserting the illustration on the slide, you must caption it underneath, using single-spaced lines. The standard format is:

  • Label each figure in order, beginning with number 1. The first image is labeled Figure 1.
  • Using your own words, briefly describe what the figure shows.
  • Reprinted (retained original appearance) / Adapted (modified appearance) statement.
  • In-text citation. Note that format is different from References. The components: title/label of image, author/creator of image, publication year. 

Example of a Diagram with no modification to appearance, with a title/label, author/creator is an organization, and publication/copyright date provided:

Image of hair follicles demonstrating a properly written cpation.

Figure 1. Chemicals are absorbed in the skin by passing through hair follicles. Reprinted from 
Dermal Absorption, by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2012.


Example of Photograph with no modification to appearance, without a title/label, author/creator is an organization, and no publication/copyright date provided:

image with no labels etc

Figure 2. Connections of non-invasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation for treating dysphagia. Reprinted from [Untitled photograph of a woman], by Florida Hospital, n.d.


At the end of your presentation, you must list your references. Here are the references to the above images. 
Although APA style requires double-spacing of reference entries, it is suggested to instead use single spacing on slides. Arrange entries alphabetically, and retain the hanging indent format in order to differentiate references. 
Yes, you may copy & paste references from Zotero to presentation slides--contact a librarian for assistance. 

[ Notes: APA Manual (p. 192) states: "Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change 
over time." Since web page content often changes, provide the date of retrieval. Also, if you must split the URL between two lines, do so before a slash.]

References

Florida Hospital. (n.d.). [Untitled photograph of a woman.] Retrieved March 11, 2013, from
         http://www.changeyourlifechallenge.org/news
        /hospital-enhances-rehab-program-with-new-experia-equipment-for-vitalstim-therapy/

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2012). Dermal absorption [Diagram]. Retrieved March 11, 
        2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/skin/

APA Captioning Tables & Figures

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(6th Edition)
How to Caption Tables & Figures from Another Source 


TABLE EXAMPLES

Table components consist of Table & number, title in italics, the table of information, and the caption. The caption begins with the word Note in italics, followed by descriptive note(s) for the table, then the source of the table (if not created by the author). The caption appears immediately underneath the table proper. Everything is double-spaced.

Material adapted from a journal article. Note format is different from References.

Note. Descriptive note. Adapted [or Reprinted] from “Title of Article,” by F. M. Author and C. D. Author, year, Title of

Journal, volume, p. xx. Copyright year by the Name of Copyright Holder. Adapted with permission.

Example:

Note. Values are percentages. Reprinted from “Hope and Social Support as Resilience Factors Against Psychological

Distress of Mothers Who Care for Children With Chronic Physical Conditions,” by T. V. Horton and J. L. Wallander,

2001, Rehabilitation Psychology, 46, p. 387. Copyright 2001 by the Educational Publishing Foundation. Adapted with

permission.

------------------------

Material adapted from a book. Note format is different from References.

Note. Descriptive note. Adapted from Title of Book (p. xx), by F. M. Author and C. D. Author, year, Place

of Publication: Publisher. Copyright year by the Name of Copyright Holder. Adapted [or Reprinted] with permission.

Example:
Note. Examples of maternal medical problems. Adapted from Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention (p. 149)by R. E. Behrman and A. S. Butler (Eds.), 2007, Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. Adapted with permission.



FIGURE EXAMPLE

APA defines a figure as any illustration that is not a table. Figures do not have separate titles but may include a legend (if applicable). The caption begins with an explanation (which also serves as the title), followed by source of figure (if not created by the author). The caption appears immediately underneath the figure and begins with the word Figure and figure number in italics. Everything is double-spaced.

Material adapted from a journal article. Note format is different from References.

Figure #. Description/Note. Adapted from “Title of Article,” by F. M. Author and C. D. Author, year,

Title of Journal, volume, p. xx. Copyright year by the Name of Copyright Holder. Adapted [or Reprinted] with

permission.

Example:

Figure 3. Model of hypothesized relationships. Adapted from “Hope and Social Support as Resilience Factors

Against Psychological Distress of Mothers Who Care for Children With Chronic Physical Conditions,” by T. V. Horton

and J. L. Wallander, 2001, Rehabilitation Psychology, 46, p. 386. Copyright 2001 by the Educational Publishing

Foundation. Adapted with permission.

APA Review Checklist

Unless otherwise specified, page numbers indicated in square brackets refer to the 6th edition, 2nd printing or later (© 2010) of the Publication ManualAPA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed. (© 2012); and APA Style Blog ( http://blog.apastyle.org/). Latest changes reflected in NMU Olson Library APA Style Guide.

APA revised the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) format on March 1, 2017. Example: https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776

APA Style is fluid (regularly changing), and some referencing formats have changed since the Manual was published in July 2009.

Therefore, it is highly recommended students consult the NMU Olson Library APA Reference Style Guide for examples, especially how to reference articles & books assigned a DOI, articles retrieved online which were not assigned a DOI, and how to reference online books & reports. However, the library's APA guide and checklists are not replacements for the entire Manual.

When preparing a product, it is highly recommended using MS Word style "No Spacing," because "Normal" style inserts extra space between paragraphs & references. 
If project is already written, change the content by highlighting narrative & references, click on Line and Paragraph Spacing, and then select: Remove Space After Paragraph.

Layout

  • Times New Roman 12-point font; everything double-spaced.

Organization & Miscellaneous

  • Include page numbers & running head as specified in DNP guidelines. Some Thesis & NMU Nursing DNP Scholarly Project guidelines specify No Running Head, and have different location for page numbers.
  • (Graduate works only) Chapters labeled according to DNP Handbook using words, not numerals.
  • In narrative, only two spaces (not one, not three) following end of sentence punctuation. Use Ctrl-H to find & replace these occurrences.
  • IRB is Institutional Review Board
  • If two sets of words are hyphenated but split, include the hyphen for both. Correct: pre- and post-test Incorrect: pre and post-test
  • Also, be consistent using word forms. If you introduce pre-test using a hyphen, keep that form throughout manuscript; do not make it one word: pretest.
  • Refer to decades without apostrophe. Correct: 2000s Incorrect: 1990's.
  • APA does not use superscripting for numbers such as 4th or 3rd. (Change Options - Proofing - Autocorrect settings in Word).

Inclusion of copyrighted material

  • Inclusion in whole (reprint) or in part (adaptation) of previously published copyrighted material requires written permission from the copyright holder[APA Manual, pp. 173-174] [DNP Scholarly Project Guidelines, p. 12]
    If original source is journal article, book, or report, contact publisher. If an instrument (survey, etc.), first contact creator directly.
    If material is from a web page, it is still protected by copyright, & students must secure permission before using. Place copies of permission correspondence (e-mail, letters) in an Appendix. 
    If permission is not received, copyrighted material must not be included in the Scholarly Project.

Chapter 4 - Mechanics of Style (Capitalization, Spelling, & Numbers) [pp. 87-124]

Capitalization

  • Capitalize all proper nouns and brand names of products. However, do not capitalize generic names. 
    [p. 102] Example: capitalize Tylenol, but not acetaminophen.
  • Academic course names. Spell out and capitalize specific course.
    Example: Nursing 311 not NU 311. [p. 102]
  • Do not capitalize or italicize names of laws, theories, models, statistical procedures, or hypotheses. However, capitalize personal name portion of these. [pp. 102-103] 
    Example: Roy's adaptation theory
  • Capitalize complete titles of tests, inventories, or scales. However, do not capitalize the word test or scale if it refers to subscales of tests. [p. 103]
  • First word of genera, species, and varieties are always capitalized. All are italicized. [p. 105]

Numbers [pp. 111-114]

  • Verify correct form of all numeric values. Include a comma for thousands (except dosage, temperature, years).
  • Generally, values less than 10 are spelled out, and values 10 or greater use numbers. 
    Examples: five nurses   75 patients
    However, when beginning a sentence with a number, always spell out the number as word(s). Example: One nurse supervises 15 RNs   not: 1 nurse supervises
    APA recommends not beginning a sentence with a number, and instead rewrite the sentence.

Exceptions to these general rules for numbers

  • Range of time should be numbers, as in: 9 to 12 months or 9-12 months
  • For time of day, do not spell out in words, but rather use standard conventions: 
    12:00 p.m. or at 3:00 p.m. [p. 112]
  • Use words for approximates, as in: about six weeks. [p. 112]
  • Temperature: use numerals and scale abbreviation. [p. 114] 
    Example: 98.6 °F
  • Percent: When percent sign is preceded by a number, use symbol with no space. [p. 118] 
    Correct: 12%  5% 
    Incorrect: 12 percent  5 percent   five percent   five%
  • However, when discussing percentage (no value) or percentile, spell out word.

Statistical and Mathematical Copy [pp. 116-123] Note use of italics & spacing

  • Writing p values: p < .001 or p = .005
  • Number of subjects in total sample N = vs. n = for portion of sample

Chapter 5 - Displaying Results (Tables & Figures) [125-167]

  • APA uses the following terminology: 
    Tables (row-column structure) 
    Figures (graphs, charts, maps, photos, illustrations-basically any illustration which is not a table) [p. 125]
  • Tables & figures are numbered using Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the work. 
    [p. 127]
  • Must label all tables & figures, even those in Appendices
  • Must caption all tables & figures.
  • The label for a table is written above. Example: Table 1 then double-space between table number and table title.
  • Insert table caption below table, beginning with: Note. 
    If information is from another source, include citation in caption according to copyright holder's directions; if none provided, use examples in Chapter 5 and as indicated on this library guide.
  • Figure number is placed underneath as part of the caption, and is italicized: Figure 2.
  • When student creates table/figure using data/info from their own research, caption needs to include only a brief description and any notes.
  • When referring to either in the narrative, capitalize the word, don't italicize, and never abbreviate: 
    Table 1  (Figure 3)

Chapter 6 - Crediting Sources (citing in-text & formatting names in references) [169-192]

Examples of how to format in-text citations appear in Table 6.1, p. 177, the In-text Citations tab of the APA guide, and here on the Library's web site.

  • In-text citation only works listed in the References. 
    Exception: When referring to an entire web site in the narrative, provide the source URL of the site in parentheses, and do not include in References. 
    Example: The American Nurses Association website (http://www.nursingworld.org/) provides a wealth of information to the newly-licensed RN.
  • Use Ctrl-F to find all occurrences & formatting of an author’s work(s) in-text & on the References list.
  • Spelling accuracy of author last names is critical.
  • Make sure to cite complete individual person author last name(s) in-text; that is, no abbreviations or shortening.
  • When citing groups/organizations the first time, spell out name and then indicate its acronym. In order to avoid confusion, recommend using well-known acronym for that group/organization. 
    Example: Here is a parenthetical first citation to a 2010 WHO report: (World Health Organization [WHO], 2010). Subsequent in-text cites to this work would then appear as: (WHO, 2010).
  • When citing more than one author parenthetically, place ampersand before last author, not the word and. Example: (Smith & Jones, 2011).

  • et al. : format inside parentheses is: (first author et al., year) Outside parentheses: first author et al. (year)
  • Applying et al. : If not using Zotero or Endnote (which tracks & automatically formats et al.), must keep track of first set of authors then subsequent use of et al. Do not revert to listing all of the authors later in the manuscript.
  • Citing six or more authors? Use: first author et al. and the year for first & subsequent cites. However, if two references shortened are the same form, include in-order first author and additional authors as necessary, followed by a comma and et al. to distinguish the works. [p. 175]

  • Citing more than one source within parentheses? Arrange alphabetical in order as they appear on the References list, and separate entries by a semi-colon. 
    Correct: (Jones & Smith, 2017; Marks & Fitz, 2012) Also, do not insert the word and or & sign after the semicolon. 
    Incorrect: (Smith & Marks, 2012; & Taylor & Fish, 2014)

  • More than one work with same first author surname (but are different people) [p. 176, Section 6.14] 
    Insert in-text all of the first author initials including capitalization and periods. 
    Example: Two works authored as follows: Barley, Zoe A. published in 2009; and Barley, Maurice Willmore published in 1972. 
    When citing these in-text, write: 
    We reviewed a number of studies authored by Z. A. Barley (2009) and M. W. Barley (1972).
  • More than one work with same first author surname (but are different people) & will use et al.(same first author/year & et al.). Insert in-text all of the first author initials.
  • When referring to individuals (not authors) in-text, omit titles (Dr.) and degrees (PhD). [p. 23]. Also provide in-text citation.

  • Secondary sources. As stated in the Manual: "Use secondary sources sparingly ... when the original work is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not available in English." [p. 178] 
    Generally, avoid using secondary sources. Instead, well before project deadline, try to acquire the original source cited in the secondary source. If the library does not own the original work, request through interlibrary loan (articles only take a few days, and books a little longer). 
    When writing a master's or doctoral thesis/dissertation/scholarly project, it is recommended students should not be citing secondary sources and relying upon secondary interpretations.
  • Strongly recommend referencing & citing original source of theories, not rely upon secondary sources. Examples include journal articles, books, or web page authored by theorist. Also acceptable would be reprint of author's theory in a theory book.
  • When referring to a specific figure in-text, the word is capitalized. Example: Figure 1
  • Seriation (creating lists) see Manual pp. 63-64. If including within a paragraph, APA uses letters, not numbers.
  • Direct quotation fewer than 40 words (part of sentence). Period is placed at the end of the sentence, not at the end of the quote. [Manual, p. 171]
  • Direct quotation 40 or more words (Block quotation). Period is placed at the end of the quotation itself. In-text citation follows but does not end in a period. [Manual, p. 171]
  • Emphasizing terms. Use italics the first time, and normal text thereafter. Do not use quotation marks unless indicating it as a direct quote, and then of course citing the source.
  • Abbreviations. Provide only when expected to use abbreviation more than once.
  • Avoid making et al. a possessive.
  • When citing & referencing names of software (such as SPSS, etc.), see p. 210 for rules.
  • All direct quotes must include page number, or if web page... section heading and paragraph number.

Chapter 7 - Reference Examples [pp. 193-215]

Law/legal sources: Manual, Appendix 7.1: References to Legal Materials [216-224]; The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (2015) 

General

  • Begin references on a new page, then center & title it (neither bold nor underline): 
    References
  • Only works cited in-text must appear in References (except when referring to an entire web site, which is in-text only). Works consulted but not directly cited do not belong on the list of references. 
    Exception: Writing a Literature Review-type of article (which is vastly different from the lit review section of the scholarly project).
  • Some sites may refer to web pages as "articles." In APA style, articles are published in periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers/news sites). If it is not a periodical, reference as a web page.
  • Reference the same exact work only once in the list.
  • Make sure all entries use hanging indent, and are double-spaced.
  • Provide one space following end of sentence punctuation in References.
  • Arrange list alphabetically by first author last name.
  • Never use et al. in the References list.

Author Sentence

  • For a reference entry, list authors in the order they appear on the work.
  • Must include author middle initials when provided in the source (this is absolutely required). This directly affects the arrangement of entries in References.
  • Do not place a comma between author initials, but after the author first initial (when no middle is used), or after middle initial (when middle initial is used).
  • Must place a space between author initials.
  • When author has hyphenated first name, include periods for initials: M.-C.
  • Scandinavian author names such as van Soeren: Van is usually not the middle name, but rather part of the last name. Capitalize according to the form as it appears on the article.
  • When same exact set of authors in the same order & published same year, arrange alpha by title/part, and place lower-case letters immediately after year: (2001a) (2001b) [Manual, p. 182]. Use same year format for in-text cites.
  • When referencing works with more than 7 authors, there is a space between 6th author initial and ellipses. For example: Smith, L., . . . Bardin, T.
  • Format of author entries are last name, first initial, middle initial. Only exception is for authored chapter in an edited book.
  • When organization is author, do not include or replace name with acronym. Correct: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Incorrect: CDC.
  • When referencing U.S. government agencies as authors, do not spell out United States. Instead, provide initials without a space: U.S. 
    Also, provide the specific agency, not just the parent agency. Exception is CDC and some other well-known health agencies. See examples on APA guide & p. 205.

Publication Year

  • For journal articles, books, reports, & web pages, provide only the latest year.
  • For magazine articles, provide year, month such as: (2012, August)
  • For newspaper articles, provide year, month, day: (2017, July 10)

Capitalization of article, book, report, & web page titles

  • Basically, capitalize first word of title, & subtitle following a colon. Also proper names, abbreviations, & acronyms.
  • Titles of projects are considered proper names, and therefore capitalized.
  • Do not place quotation marks around article titles unless they appear on the article.
  • When including quotation marks in a title, the ending period goes inside, not outside of the ending quotation mark.

Source sentence: Journal articles

  • Journal titles: Do not use MEDLINE-type of abbreviations, such as Am J Nutr
  • Verify official title of journals (e.g., Formulary, not Formulary Journal).
  • Journal titles: If official title is an acronym, DO NOT expand title. Correct: JAMA, AORN Journal, AANA Journal 
    Incorrect: Journal of the American Medical Association
  • Only include location when part of official title-even if the publication title is a generic name. Correct: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Incorrect: The Mining Journal (Marquette).
  • Capitalize all significant words; that is, all words except conjunctions, articles, prepositions.
  • Italicize journal title and volume number (but not issue number or page numbers).
  • Must include volume number (unless not yet assigned due to advance publication). Suggest including issue number unless known for sure that journal uses continuous pagination throughout volume.
  • Article published in supplemental issue format is: 109(Suppl. 2)
  • Advanced online publications - Verify article status is still advanced (has not been published). Often, articles have been published between when first retrieved, and then later submitted for a grade.
  • Colons are not used in the source sentence.
  • Must provide complete beginning & ending page numbers for articles. However, if journal is published online-only which includes an article number not a page number, APA requires you provide the page number range of the PDF. Examples include titles beginning with BMC. 
    For journals which are only published in HTML format and do not provide page numbers, place a period after the issue number. For example, referencing articles from Online Journal of Issues in Nursing would look like this: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing 22(3).

DOI (digital object identifier)

  • Must provide assigned DOI; this is not a choice, but a requirement. NMU DNP students are required to use the new format (effective 3/1/17), which begins: https://doi.org/ 
    Zotero uses this new format.
  • Verify DOIs are correct and match the reference.
  • If you split a DOI address between lines, begin next line with a slash: /

DOI not appearing on article or book?

Where to locate DOI for one article

  1. Check the first page of article (usually in smaller print near journal logo, copyright, or near author email address).
  2. If not on article, check database record/abstract (sometimes labeled as DOI). CINAHL began adding DOIs in 2009.
  3. If DOI does not appear on either article or in database, search the Cross/Ref DOI Lookup using article author/title

Where to locate DOI for list of articles

  1. Create an account at Cross/Ref. After you submit your request, you will receive an e-mail. Please click on the provided link to activate your account.
  2. Next, go to Simple Text Query Form and enter your e-mail address, then copy & paste entire reference list into box. Click submit.
  • If article retrieved online is not assigned a DOI, then must provide journal home page URL. 
    Note: this is different than the URL of where you found the article.
  • Verify the correct journal URL which matches the article referenced. For example, there are at least three different journals titled Child Welfare.
  • URLs are not underlined or active (change Options - Proofing - Autocorrect settings in Word).
  • If you split URL between lines, next line must begin with a slash: /

Book, Reports, Government Documents

  • Referencing a book with editors? In most cases, reference the separately-authored chapter(s), not the entire book.
  • Very few quality/academic works lack an author. If unable to identify an author, search title in WorldCat to verify the author.

  • For reports, include report number in parentheses at end of title sentence. Also provide URL for PDF, not web page URL on which PDF link appears.
  • Print version: Include Place of publication (City, ST/Province) or (City, Country) followed by a colon : followed by publisher. 
    Name of publisher: exclude words such as Publishing, Pub., Co., or Inc. [Manual, p. 187]
  • Name of publisher: keep words such as Books and Press [Manual, p. 187]

  • Online version: Do not include exact URL, but instead the source URL (see Library's APA Guide for provider-specific examples). You may not substitute print reference information for an ebook.
  • No comma between book title and edition statement within parentheses.
  • When online reports are regularly updated, recommend using latest published report (current data).

Chapter in an edited book

  • Is the book edited, or just authored? Verify by looking at the title page and verso page (will state edited by or Ed.).
  • Begin entry by providing author(s) of book chapter. Year of publication. Title of chapter.
  • Include page numbers of entire chapter, not just cited portion.

Web pages

  • If no individual(s) responsible for page, provide organization/agency as author.
  • Include latest year of publication as indicated on web page. Except for some government agencies, most provide year.
  • Titles of web pages are no longer italicized (changed in fall 2014).
  • For web pages, indicate exact date of retrieval.
  • If source is behind a paywall or "member-only," provide home page URL.
  • Verify URLs for web pages; update broken URLs.
  • Use caution when referencing lecture notes by a graduate TA or papers posted by students, as their credibility is questionable.
  • Some sites may refer to web pages as "articles." In APA style, articles are published in periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers/news sites). If it is not a periodical, reference as a web page.

MLA Style to APA Style References

Creating References
Transitioning from MLA Style (Handbook, 8th ed., 2016)
to
APA Style (Publication Manual, 6th Edition, 2010, second printing or later; 
APA Guide to Electronic References, 2012; official APA style blog) 

Created by Prof. Mike Strahan
Updated 8/24/2019

Found the following work while searching ERIC, and retrieved online after clicking
Get this for me [NMU Olson Library]

Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities
Hugh W. Catts, Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges and Katherin Mendoza
Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 42, No. 2, 163-176 (2009)

MLA Works Cited entry (retrieved from publisher web site):

Catts, Hugh W., Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Mindy Sittner Bridges 

          and Katherin Mendoza. "Floor Effects Associated With Universal Screening and

          Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities." Journal of Learning

          Disabilities, vol. 42, no. 2, March/April 2009, pp. 163-176. doi:10.1177/0022219408326219. 

[Note that if we had found the full-text of this article in an online database, the name of the database
in italics would be inserted between the page numbers and DOI.]

APA Reference entry, DOI assigned:

Catts, H. W., Petscher, Y., Schatschneider, C., Bridges, M. S., & Mendoza, K. (2009).

          Floor effects associated with universal screening and their impact on the early

          identification of reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2), 163-176. 

          https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219408326219

 

Explanation of APA reference components

 

Reference
Section
APA format & notes
Author Use last name, first and middle initials. Separate two or last two authors by an ampersand (&). If work has more than 7 authors, list first 6, then three dots ... then last author. This is a major change from previous APA guidelines.
Publication Year For journal articles, only provide the year. For magazine articles, include year followed by month. For example: (2008, June).
Article Title Only capitalize first letter of first word for title and subtitle. Also capitalize proper names, acronyms, & abbreviations. Unlike MLA, no quotation marks.
Journal Title Capitalize all words except articles. Entire title in italics.
Volume Number Italics
Issue Number

Most scholarly/research journals use continuous pagination; that is, the first issue of a volume begins with page 1, and the page numbers continue until the end of the last issue in the volume.

However, in the online environment, many researchers are not familiar enough with the journal to know whether each issue is separately paginated; that is, each issue begins with page 1.

Therefore, it is recommended researchers include the issue number within parentheses (not italics) immediately following the volume number: 55(6)

Page Numbers

Include all page numbers where article appears. Do not use sloppy format, such as 163-76; instead write complete range: 163-176.

If journal is published online-only and articles are numbered, use pagination indicated in PDF form of article. Example: 1-12.

DOI - Digital Object Identifier

Unique number assigned to primarily journal articles, and some 
e-books and e-book chapters.

Note that not all articles are assigned a DOI, especially popular magazine and newspaper articles. The DOI always begins with 10 followed by a period and four digits and a slash. Example: 10.1177/

Remaining part of identifier may be all numbers, all letters, or combination of letters and numbers.

Beginning March 1, 2017, APA changed the format of the DOI to begin with https://doi.org/ 
followed by the assigned DOI. 

Even though some databases and journals may not use the current format, researchers & students are expected to follow the current standard format in their APA references.

 

Handouts and Guides for 7th edition

The following are instructional aids for the seventh edition Publication Manual. They can be used in homes, classrooms, libraries, or anywhere you are learning or teaching APA Style. 

Sample Papers (student & professional) 

How to APA Style cite the Michigan Revised School Code (1976)

Prepared by Prof. Mike Strahan; endorsed by Dr. Bethney Bergh

June 5, 2019

Adapting the example which appears in the APA Manual, 6th ed. 2nd printing or later, Appendix 7.1, p. 220.

Information as it appears online from the State of Michigan Legislative Council:

380.1280a Specialized or alternative school or program.

Sec. 1280a.

   The board of a school district or intermediate school district that operates or participates in a consortium
that operates an alternative educational program pursuant to section 1301, a vocational-technical skills
center or other separate vocational education program, or any other type of specialized or alternative
school or program shall ensure that the requirements of sections 1204a, 1277a, 1278, and 1280 are met
for each of those schools or programs.

History: Add. 1993, Act 335, Imd. Eff. Dec. 31, 1993
Popular Name: Act 451


APA Reference example:

Michigan Revised School Code Act, 451 M.C.L. §380.1280a (1976 & 1993).

APA In-text citation examples:

(Michigan Revised School Code Act, 1976 & 1993)

Michigan Revised School Code Act of 1976 and 1993

Michigan Revised School Code Act (1976 & 1993)


Notes:

  1. All of your references from the Revised School Code will begin with:

    Michigan Revised School Code Act, 451 M.C.L. §380.
     
  2. Rest of reference is the specific section or section range,
    followed by (1976 &
    and latest year indicated from the source History line.
     
  3. When referencing/citing laws/statutes/codes, nothing is italicized in either the reference or in-text citation. However, APA rules are different when citing court cases.

Instructional Videos

Searching for children's books by age level? See example below:


Click on Catalog tab above, click on Advanced Search, enter topic & ages, then change Location to: NMU Pre-K-12

Search for articles, reports, books, theses, dissertations, & legal materials

Journal articles, books, and other resources relating to education--from early childhood to higher education. Views 'education' very broadly and covers areas such as outdoor education, corporate training, speech language therapy, etc. 1966 to present.

Google Scholar

Journal articles, books, and other resources across many subjects. Provides a "cited by" feature to indicate other papers containing a source paper as a reference.

Journals, books, and other resources covering psychology and psychological aspects of related disciplines including: anthropology, business, education, law, linguistics, medicine, nursing, pharmacology, physiology, and sociology. 1805 to present.

Journal articles, books, and other resources on all aspects of sociology and related disciplines. Subjects include demography, environmental interactions, family and social welfare, social psychology, human biology, women's studies, health, medicine, law, etc. 1952 to present; abstracts since 1974.

Children's Picture Book Database @ Miami University 
This database offers abstracts for thousands of children's picture books (preschool to grade three), suitable for teachers, librarians, and others who design interdisciplinary curricula for elementary schools and library programs. Major categories include Literature, Language and Communications, Mathematics, Health and Medicine, Natural History and Natural Science, Social Studies, and Visual and Performing Arts.

DSM-5

(Official) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed; DSM-5)

APA Reference formats of DSM-5, citing specific chapter (each assigned DOI):

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual

        of mental disorders (5th ed.). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1176

        /appi.books.9780890425596.dsm05

APA Reference of entire work:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

        (5th ed.). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm05

Searching for children's books by age level? See example below:


Click on Catalog tab above, click on Advanced Search, enter topic & ages, then change Location to: NMU Pre-K-12


Barstow, Barbara. 
Beyond Picture Books: a guide to first readers 
Pre-K -12 Collection (Non-Fiction) 011.62 B278

Bingham, Jane M.
Writers for children : critical studies of major authors since the seventeenth century
NMU Books (Library upper floor) PN 1009 .A1 W73 1988

Cianciolo, Patricia Jean 
Informational Picture Books for Children 
NMU Books (Library upper floor) Z 1037.A1 C54 2000

Homa, Linda L. 
Elementary school library collection.
NMU Books (Library upper floor) PN 1009 .A1 .E53
(latest ed. is 2000)

Lima, Carolyn W. 
A to Zoo: subject access to children's picture books, 6th ed. 
Pre-K -12 Collection (Non-Fiction) 011.62 L715

National Council of Teachers of English 
Adventuring with Books: a booklist for pre-K - grade 6. 
NMU Pre-K -12 Collection (Non-Fiction) 011.62 A29
(2002)

National Council of Teachers of English
Books for You: a booklist for senior high.
NMU Pre-K -12 Collection (Non-Fiction) 011.625 B73
additional copy: NMU Books (Library upper floor) PN 1009 .A1 B6

National Council of Teachers of English
High Interest Easy Reading for Middle and Senior High School Students.
Pre-K -12 Collection (Non-Fiction) 028.535 N4
(1996)

National Council of Teachers of English
Your Reading: a list for junior high schools.
Pre-K -12 Collection (Non-Fiction) 028.5 Y69

Paulin, Mary Ann 
Creative Uses of Childrens' Literature 
NMU Books (Library upper floor) PN 1009 .A1 P33

Paulin, Mary Ann
More Creative Uses of Childrens' Literature
NMU Books (Library upper floor) PN 1009 .A1 P33 1992

Rasinski, Timothy V. and Cindy S. Gillespie 
Sensitive Issues: an annotated guide to children's literature K-6.
NMU Books (Library upper floor) PN 1009 .AS1 R23 1992

Shapiro, Lillian L. and Barbara L. Stein 
Fiction for Youth: a guide to recommended books.
NMU Books (Library upper floor) PN 1009 .A1 F44 1992

Sutherland, Zena et. al. 
The Best in Children's Books: the University of Chicago guide to children's literature.
NMU Books (Library upper floor) PN 1009 .A1 S96 1991

Full text access to three key resources--Contemporary Authors, Contemporary Literary Criticism, and Dictionary of Literary Biography--along with over 300 journals, a variety of other important reference works, and selected Web sites. 1991 to present.

Carle, Eric
Artist to artist: 23 major illustrators talk to children about their art
NMU Pre-K -12 Collection (Non-Fiction) 741.6 A77

Holtze, Sally Holmes
Junior Authors and Illustrators 
PN 1009 .A1 S3936
(vol. 7, 1996)

Kirkpatrick, D. L.
Twentieth Century Children's Writers
PN 1009 .A1 T9 1978

McElmeel, Sharron L.
100 most popular picture book authors and illustrators: biographical sketches and bibliographies

Reading is Fundamental
The art of reading: forty illustrators celebrate RIF's 40th Anniversary
NMU Pre-K -12 Collection (Non-Fiction) 741.6 R32

Simon, Howard
500 years of illustration: from Albrecht Dürer to Rockwell Kent  (2011)

Theodor SEUSS Geisel: Theodor Geisel (2010)

 

Children's Literature Review 
NMU Pre-K-12 Collection (Non-Fiction) 028.5 C5139

First opinions, second reactions
(2008-present)

School Library Journal
(1974-present)

Writers for Children
PN 1009 .A1 W73
(1988)

 

EdSitement
A joint project of the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Council of Great City Schools, and others, this site is "a constantly growing collection of the most valuable online resources for teaching English, history, art history, and foreign languages." Includes lesson plans.

Educational Resources & Lesson Plans
Developed by Edmund Sass for use by his students in the education program at College of Saint Benedict/ St. John's University (Minnesota), this extensive list of resources is organized by subject area and by user group need (e.g., resources for students, resources for teachers, etc.). Over 1,000 links are provided, many with brief annotations describing the site contents.

The Educator's Reference Desk drawn from the ERIC database, it includes resource guides, lesson plans and a question archive.

Read, Write, Think
Sponsored by the International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English, this site promises "access to the highest quality practices and resources in reading and language arts education." Includes links to standards and recommended Web sites, as well as to lesson plans.

Many, many more sources for lesson plans exist, and can be found by typing your criteria into Google.

Pre-K-12 Collection is located on the left side of the Library's Main Floor (top-right on this map)

Click here for this section of new Library map

Children's Literature Web Guide 
A guide to Internet resources related to books for children and teens. Includes links to discussion groups; best books and awards lists; authors; stories; journals; parent, teacher, storyteller, writer, and illustrator resources; and more. From David K. Brown of the Doucette Library of Teaching Resources, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

The Horn Book 
"Publications about books for children and young adults."
Number of resources including Virtual History Exhibit in honor of the 75th Anniversary of The Horn Book, the premier magazine of children's literature. Also includes breadth of other resources for teachers.

Locally, the Superiorland Preview Center believes that "Providing children with quality up-to-date literature is an essential first step in the literacy process. Professionals and parents need access to the newest books to share with children as well as need to have the skills to evaluate these books. The Superiorland Library Preview Center will provide children's books, workshops on how to evaluate and review them, and distribute those reviews."

   MeLCat

  • The fastest way to borrow something not available at NMU.
  • Recommended for books, DVDs, CDs

    Interlibrary Loan

  • The best option for articles or book chapters.
  • Can't find the materials you need at NMU Collection or MelCat?
  • Submit an Interlibrary Loan request and we'll search libraries around the world.
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